Year 2021 , Volume 10, Issue 1, Part 1 Year 2021 , Volume  10, Issue 1, Part 1
1Aspects of Corporate Governance in Developing Countries
MUHAMMAD MAJID MAHMOOD BAGRAM, AKBAR ABBAS BANGASH and ZARA KIRAN
Pages: 1-8
Details (557)
This research article throws light on the impacts of Corporate Governance in the developing countries particularly to Pakistan, Mexico, Brazil and Bangladesh. The paper starts with discussions on how and when there is an alteration in different features of company administration during the practice of financial advancing in Mexico. It encompasses ultimately the impact of transforms in the replica of business control regarding the expansion of the state e.g. enlargement in purchaser commodities in favour of central group buyers, growth revelation through home firms, fewer help in favour of community public schemes etc. The authors of this research article assert that problems of governance in Bangladesh are at the helm of affairs of its economy. We observed the data regarding governance of Bangladesh of period 1996-2004 and analysed these various governance dimensions out of the aforesaid economic progress analysis the key dimensions have been divulged. These are political governance, institution dimensions and technology dimensions. The political governance in Bangladesh has been paralysed from 1998 to 2004. When the performance of governance in Bangladesh become functional it had positively affected the economy. We cannot say the importance of company authority within growing kingdoms. The commercial domination might include a slightly different system than prevalent in the European countries and North America due to insufficient infrastructure and destroy governmental policy interventionism. We also throw light on important features of Brazilian firm’s changes after the application for communal power exercises. After making a deliberation on the implementation of joint supremacy in Brazil, Mexico, and Bangladesh and subsequently we have emphasized the impact of Corporate Governance and proper growth in Pakistan. The relationship between good governance and proper growth is proportional generally. Having studied different scenarios of the countries under remonstration, the writers have reached the conclusion that good governance is an essential component for upgrading the economies of developing countries because of these reasons it may be said that high-quality control leads towards a country obtain sky-scraping and frequent monetary increase through establishment of congenial environment for savings and investment, entrepreneurship, yielding implement upon manufacturers, generating constancy among marketplace, expansion in souks though elimination of hurdles/barriers towards inner job and progress over the competitors.
Keywords: Business Control, Economic Development and Proper Growth.
2Parametric Approach to Production Efficiency of Textile Exports in Pakistan
INAYATULLAH KHAN and MOHAMMAD AFZAL
Pages: 9-22
Details (414)
Pakistan’s economy is mainly dependent on textile industry. Textile manufacturers and policy makers are giving priority to improve production efficiency in the textile industry. To compete with rival firms, production efficiency appeared more important than before. This study has analysed the production efficiency of textile manufacturing and exporting firms in Pakistan. The data from annual reports of limited companies registered on the stock exchanges of Pakistan has been used. Cobb-Douglas (half - normal) Stochastic Frontier output model and MLE technique have been applied. Empirical results demonstrate that on average, during the 2016-17, the variable “Cost of material” has the highest elasticity of output (0.719) while the variable “Salaries and wages” has the second larger elasticity of output (0.154). The third input (Energy charges) has elasticity of output 0.096, and the fourth input (Value of operating fixed asset) has the lowest elasticity of output (0.039). The level of production efficiency of the firms in Pakistan ranged from 66.5 percent to 96.73 percent with a mean 89.55 percent during the year. The average estimated value of “” indicated that majority (approximately 71.95%) of the variations in the firms’ output were due to difference in technical inefficiency (ui) and small (28.05 %) variations were due to random error (vi).
Keywords: Textile Manufacturing and Exporting Firms, Technical Efficiency, Stochastic Frontier Output, MLE Technique, Cobb-Douglas Production Function.
3The Challenges of Educational Leadership: A Feminist Perspective Lens
ZAHEER ABBAS, ANNES FATIMA and SADRUDDIN BAHADUR QUTOSHI
Pages: 23-32
Details (982)
Women as leaders have been facing challenges in workplace as well as at homes. However, the focus of this research is to explore the challenges which women face in different leadership and managerial positions in public and private organizations in Gilgit-Baltistan. Employing qualitative research method, data was collected from eight (8) females who were in leadership and management positions in different public and private organizations in the context of Gilgit-Baltistan. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect the data. The analysis of the data showed that women mostly face challenges regarding their job related duties due to household responsibilities, stereotypes of the masses about their abilities to manage public administration and the lack of equal opportunities for promotions and rewards as compared to their male counterparts in the organizations. It is recommended that both public and private organizations should develop women friendly policies to provide equal opportunities so as to facilitate them in their job responsibilities.
Keywords: Leadership, Management, Challenges, Organizations, Stereotypes, Feminist Lens.
4Impact of Macroeconomic Variables on Growth of Assets in Islamic Banks: A Case of Pakistan
ZAHOOR HUSSAIN JAVED, MAHMOOD UL HASAN and IQRA AROOG
Pages: 33-37
Details (365)
The foremost intention of this study is to investigate the influence of macroeconomic variables on the growth of assets in Islamic banks of Pakistan for 11 years from 2008-2018. Descriptive statistics, correlation matrix, and ordinary least square technique are used for data analysis. Thus, the findings indicate that the provision of domestic credit (% GDP) has positive and a significant influence on the growth of assets in Islamic banks in Pakistan. The consumer price index has a negative influence on the growth of assets in Pakistan because as the consumer’s price index has been risen up, consumers reduce their expenditures on goods and services, thus gathering assets in Islamic banks will be reduced. Thus, the consumer’s price index has negative effect on the growth of assets in Islamic banks. The outcomes of this research are consistent with the previous studies and shows same results.
Keywords: Macroeconomics Variables, Growth of Assets in Islamic Banks, Domestic Credit, Consumer Price Index, Pakistan.
5A Brief Overview of Despotic Leadership Research
ALEENA MUKARRAM, SAJJAD HUSSAIN and MEHWISH ALI KHAN
Pages: 38-55
Details (812)
The present study is an attempt to give a brief overview of despotic leadership research in a chronological order. Starting from the pre-historic era, the study links the concept of despotic leadership with Greek era and explains its existence in other domains which includes sociology and political science. It briefly addresses questions like how despotic leadership evolved from the broader construct of destructive leadership. What are the different types of destructive leaders and how despotic leadership differs from other type? It also covers different consequences of the despotic leadership with multiple themes. The study deeply analyzes the integration of despotic leadership research with multiple behavioral and attitudinal work-related outcomes. Finally, current trends and future directions are proposed for further scientific and logical validation.
Keywords: Despotic leadership, Historical Review, Multiple Dimensions, Current and Future Trends.
6Micro Push and Pull Factors Influence Human Capital Flight in Academia: A Qualitative Study
QUDSIA ARSHAD and RASHIDA KHATOON MALIK
Pages: 56-67
Details (480)
This study aims to deepen the understanding of the issues of an intellectual brain drain in academia. There is no doubt that higher education is vital to the growth and development of a country. Hence, the universities need to maintain highly qualified human resources to ensure effectiveness and competitiveness. This research study is focused to investigate the experiences of the academicians who are foreign qualified and migrated to advanced countries, they were asked to describe their experiences, using their own stories and interpretations of their personal experiences. The qualitative research approach was adopted to get the gist of the real reason that prompts the academicians to stay or leave their home country after getting education from abroad. The study employed social constructivism as an interpretive framework analysis method and used purposive and snowballing sampling techniques. Semi-structured interviews were recorded and analyzed. Findings suggested that career opportunities, economic, social, education, technological factors, and adjustment issues caused the brain drain of academicians of public sector universities of Islamabad. The knowledge drawn from this research can operate as a piece of useful reference information for current and future recruitment efforts, support services, and helpful in minimizing the brain drain.
Keywords: Academicians, Brain Drain, Human Resource, Higher Education Institutions (HEI), Push Pull Factors.
7Leadership and Decision-making Style among Women Entrepreneurs: A Case of Malaysia
FILZAH MD ISA, NOR AZILA MOHD NOR and SHAISTA NOOR
Pages: 68-79
Details (450)
Women entrepreneur plays a catalytic role in economic development, as women constitute half of Malaysia's population. The contribution of women entrepreneurs in the country's economy is significant and may not ignore. Malaysia is a multicultural and multiethnic society comprised of Malays, Chinese, Indian and other local ethnics. The present study investigates the leadership and decision-making style among Malaysian women entrepreneurs. The present study adopted the qualitative research strategy, and ten women entrepreneurs are interviewed. A semi-structured interview technique is applied, and 6 Malays and 4 Chinese entrepreneurs made the study population. The result highlights that both Malay and Chinese entrepreneurs used democratic leadership styles for business management. Regarding decision-making, Malaysian women experienced failures in making the right decision. However, they considered the failure as a learning process for future decision-making. The present study will help new entrepreneurs persevere in their business ventures, and policymakers look into the best supports to enhance Malaysian women entrepreneurs' success.
Keywords: Women Entrepreneur, Decision-making Process, Leadership Styles, Malaysia.
8An Empirical Investigation of the Impact of Institutions on Economic Growth
RUMMANA ZAHEER and ADEELA KHALID
Pages: 80-99
Details (432)
This paper explores the impact of institutions on economic growth, measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. A wide range of economic, non-economic, social, environmental and political factors contribute to economic growth and prosperity. Institutions are discussed as a range of array of regulatory and accountability mechanisms, beyond the boundaries of market functioning. This paper takes composite values of democracy index, vested interests, accountability, human rights and freedom of association and uses it as a proxy for institutions. A range of theoretical and empirical evidence, in addition to panel data analysis indicates positive role of institutions in economic growth.
Keywords: Institutions, Democracy, Economic Growth, Investment, Fertility, Education, Inequality, Education, Government, Political Stability, Rule of Law, Life Expectancy, Panel Data.
9An Investigation into Dynamic Conditional Correlation of Pakistan Stock Market with its Trade Partners Under Covid-19 Perspective
HINA SHAHRUKH, IMRAN ABBAS JADOON and RAHEEL MUMTAZ
Pages: 100-118
Details (437)
This study investigates the financial linkage of Pakistan stock market with those of its three major trade partners i.e., China, UK and USA and the impact of ongoing global health crisis (Covid-19) on this linkage. A Dynamic Conditional Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (DCC-GARCH) approach was used to calculate dynamic correlation coefficient between the countries’ stock markets by using the daily price data of MSCI indices spanning the period 1st January 2016 to 31 December 2019 (Pre COVID-19 period) and 1st January 2020 to 30th June 2020 (COVID-19 period). The empirical results of the study highlighted that the integration of Pakistan stock market with the sampled countries was relatively low before the COVID 19 pandemic – which indicated a positive sign for market participants to diversify their portfolios. However, after the pandemic breakout, the correlation among stock markets increased substantially, indicating the significant role played by the shock events in the transmission of financial contagion between different stock markets.
Keywords: Stock Market, Dynamic Conditions, Covid-19, Pakistan.
10Mapping Compulsive Buying Behavior of M-commerce Consumers in Pakistan
MUHAMMAD USHA MALIK, SHAFEI MOIZ HALI and MUHAMMAD AIZZAN MALIK
Pages: 119-134
Details (586)
In the last decade, emergence of different technological platforms have drastically influenced and altered societies across the globe. Social commerce or S-commerce which is an off shoot of e-commerce has become part of everyday life among consumers. Mobile commerce also known as m-commerce is a major contributor towards S-commerce. The current research intends to investigate the compulsive buying behavior and conspicuous online consumption frameworks in the context of m-commerce. This study is targets the trends of m commerce within the context of developing country like Pakistan. The current research aims at highlighting how the antecedents involved in the frameworks of compulsive buying behavior and conspicuous online consumption translate into behaviors in the context of m-commerce. The significance of the study can be judged from the fact that, it will help contribute towards to body of knowledge concerning modern social consumptions patterns of the consumers triggered by the m-commerce applications. The research utilizes the lens of the social impact theory with peers and m-commerce, based on the SOR model. The selected population for undertaking the study comprised of consumers who consume different products (i.e. apparel, gadgets, cosmetics and jewelry etc.). This study has diverse theoretical and managerial contribution in the field of consumer behavior. As the results of this study also validated the SOR model and as well as social impact theory in the context of the m-commerce. Secondly, this study taken participation and desire for self-promotion as an organism. And participation was directly inclined by the familiarity and closeness.
Keywords: S-commerce, Compulsive Buying Behavior, Conspicuous Online Consumption, Social Impact Theory, SOR Model.
11Investigating Personality Traits as the Antecedents of Workplace Bullying
MUHAMMAD MUNIR, MAJID ALI and SYED KARIM HAIDER
Pages: 135-149
Details (365)
There is an ample body of knowledge showing significant association between five factor model (FFM) of personality traits and workplace bullying, yet exploring cause-and-effect relationship between them is still under addressed. To address this issue, current study has analyzed personality traits of Five-Factor Model as a potential antecedent of workplace bullying and its three sub-facets (verbal bullying, social bullying and physical bullying). Study analyzed responses of 266 respondents to draw inferences. Simple random sampling technique was used to collect data from the respondents. Correlation analysis showed a positive association of extraversion with physical bullying; negative association of agreeableness with workplace bullying, verbal bullying, social bullying and physical bullying; negative association of conscientiousness with workplace bullying, verbal bullying, social bullying and physical bullying; and negative association of emotional stability with physical bullying. Results of regression analysis showed significant effect of agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experiences on workplace bullying, verbal bullying, social bullying and physical bullying. Current study has identified personality as an important predictor of workplace bullying through which organizations may control incidence of bullying at their workplace environments. Current study also has highlighted important insights for future research directions.
Keywords: Five Factor Model (FFM), Personality Traits, Workplace Bullying, Physical Bullying, Verbal Bullying, Social Bullying.
12What it Takes to be a Successful Woman Entrepreneur: A Qualitative Insight
BUSHRA USMAN and SHEIKH USMAN YOUSAF
Pages: 150-167
Details (472)
Improving women entrepreneurship is about improving the societies and economies. Women across the globe have impactful participation in the field of entrepreneurship yet they receive relatively lesser attention from entrepreneurship researchers. The field lacks in its own theories and measures hence, employs borrowed ones. Further, most of the researchers use the same tools to measure entrepreneurial performance and success for both male and female entrepreneurs while ignoring the basic differences of their motives to become entrepreneurs. Similarly, women centric success measuring instruments have not been given due attention in past studies and it remained a big gap in research. This study aims to reveal what success is for women entrepreneurs and develops a success measuring tool. Hermeneutic Phenomenology approach was used to attain these objectives. Interviews were conducted from Malaysian female entrepreneurs. The study explored first, second and broader constructs to understand the true meanings of success which is found to be a multifaceted phenomenon having its roots embedded in the dimensions of autonomy, intrinsic-satisfaction, customer-base, business-growth, family, networking and business-performance. Furthermore, it develops a success measuring instrument for women entrepreneurs based upon identified themes. The devised success instrument may practically contribute in gauging women entrepreneurship success for academicians, researchers, women entrepreneurs, policy makers and others. Women entrepreneurship can significantly contribute in economic development and understanding/measuring their perceived success would assist all related stakeholders.
Keywords: Women Entrepreneurship, Success Instrument, Hermeneutic Phenomenology.
13Need for Talent Management and Investigating Its Impact on Organizational Performance of Higher Education Institutes
GHULAM MURTAZA SHAH, NOOR AHMED MEMON and GHAZALA TUNIO
Pages: 168-182
Details (942)
Human resources’ is one of the pivot elements in business enterprises to achieve set goals and objectives of new millennium. Competent and skilled workforce have to be permanent stakeholders of a corporation where they use acquired knowledge and gained skills to achieve set milestones in particular industry. Talent management is the task of attracting, acquiring, developing and retaining skilled workforce to achieve desired goals of corporation. The main objective of this research study is to explore the need for talent management and investigating its impact on the organizational performance of higher education institutes. Three factors of talent management are taken into consideration; talent attraction, talent development and talent retention. Using simple random sampling method, one hundred questionnaires were distributed to academic and administrative heads of three public sector universities in jamshoro city. Data is analyzed using cronbach’s alpha, Mean and standard deviation, regression analysis and one sample t test. After analyzing observed data results show positive and significant effect of all three factors of talent management i-e talent attraction, talent development and talent retention on the organizational performance of higher education institutes. It is concluded that talent management is integrated part of better performance and key factor in achieving standards of excellence in higher education institutes. Practicing and implementing talent management will upgrade ranking of institutes at national and international level. Furthermore higher education institutes will show impetus for continuous improvement in imparting quality education to the masses. Faculty and administrative staff of higher education institutes will have opportunity to develop their careers and top management will surely retain skilled employees and have opportunity to grow at par excellence.
Keywords: Talent Management, Organizational Performance, Higher Education Institutes.
14The Role of Organizational Politics, its Impact on Employee Job Attitude and Creativity: Exploration and Implications for the Higher Education Institutions
NOOR UN NISA, MUHAMMAD NAWAZ and TAYYABA RAFIQUE MAKHDOOM
Pages: 183-191
Details (640)
The aim of this study to put a light on basics of organizational politics and its negative and positive effects on the employee work related attitudes, more specifically in education sector. In universities administration and faculty are busy in dirty political games rather to pay more attention towards facilitating students for their educational purposes. In universities politics is considered as a dangerous element as the ultimate victim of this politics will be students. Although some studies claimed that politics could be a positive element in organizational growth and development. But, the negative side is heavier than imagination that needs more consideration. A survey has been conducted through a well-structured questionnaire among 100 respondents as well as teaching and administrative staff from different public universities of Sindh Province. The study concluded some significant work related attitudes and outcomes of politics. The main effects of analysis have also revealed that perceptions of politics have significant its impact on employee job attitude and creativity.
Keywords: Organizational Politics, Job Attitude, Creativity, Work Related Attitude, Higher Education.
15Relationship of Consumer Happiness & Outcomes: The Mediating Role of Gratitude (A Case of Apparel Industry)
SAYYED ADNAN SHABBIR and FAUZIA SYED
Pages: 192-201
Details (390)
Positive emotions have drawn considerable interest of researchers in the recent past. One such emotion is happiness. The current study attempts to discover the underlying mechanism through which consumer happiness transforms into positive outcomes. Based on the “broaden and build theory of positive emotions” a model was developed and tested. Gratitude has been taken as a mediating variable. The proposed model explains the Pakistani customers’ shopping considerations from well known clothing outlets. Consumer happiness in this study has been used as an antecedent of repurchase intentions and customer advocacy, whereas, gratitude mediates the relationship between consumer happiness and positive outcomes. Data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire from 330 respondents through survey method. All questionnaires were personally administered. PLS-SEM techniques have been used through smart PLS 3 for testing the model. The relationship between consumer happiness and customer advocacy was found significant. Gratitude was found as a significant mediator among consumer happiness and outcomes. However, repurchase intention from branded clothing stores in Pakistan was found to be insignificantly affected by consumer happiness. The study contributes towards the better comprehension about the shopping experience of Pakistani shoppers towards branded clothing stores in true letter and spirit. The study contributes to the existing body of literature by incorporating experiences of shoppers from emerging economies like Pakistan and establishing the mechanism through which consumer happiness transforms consumer experiences into positive outcomes.
Keywords: Consumer Happiness, Gratitude, Repurchase Intention, Customer Advocacy.
16Direct and Indirect Consequences of Decision Situations in Managers in Cellular Companies
MUHAMMAD NAVEED RIAZ, HAFIZ MUHAMMAD ZEESHAN IQBAL and GULNAZ MURTAZA
Pages: 202-207
Details (926)
The direct and indirect consequences of decision situations in cellular companies were investigated in this research. Prior literature suggests that usually two types of decisions are made in the modern organizations broadly categorized as programmed and non-programmed decisions. Study was conducted which focused on examining the direct effect and indirect effect and (through programmed and non-programmed decisions) on subsequent decision styles of managers which were rational and intuitive. Three scales were used for data collection from managers in cellular companies (N = 400). Hierarchical regressions confirmed that decision situations have both direct and indirect effect on the decision styles of managers.
Keywords: Certainty, Uncertainty, Programmed, Non-Programmed Decisions, Rational Style, Intuitive Style.
17Impact of Decision-Making Styles on Leadership Styles in Business Managers
JAWWAD MUHAMMAD SHUJAAT, MUHAMMAD NAVEED RIAZ and HUMAIRA YASMIN
Pages: 208-215
Details (415)
The present study was sought to examine the role of rational, intuitive, dependent, avoidant, and spontaneous decision styles in the prediction of transformational, transactional, and laissez faire leadership styles. Research questionnaire were Urdu-translated versions of General Decision styles Questionnaire (Scott & Bruce, 1995) and Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (Bass & Avolio, 2000). The sample of the current study consisted of 300 business managers from different regions of Pakistan. Purposive sampling was employed to collect the data. Multiple Regression analysis and Stepwise Regression analysis demonstrated impact of decision styles on leadership styles. Rational and intuitive decision style displayed positive effect and avoidant decision style displayed negative effect on transformational leadership style. Rational, intuitive, and dependent positively predicted transactional leadership style. Avoidant decision style displayed positive effect whereas rational and spontaneous decision style showed negative effect on laissez faire leadership style. The study shed light on the fact that the decisions of the leaders can be used as determining factors to assess their leadership in the business organizations.
Keywords: Decision Making Styles, Leadership Styles, Business Managers.
18Impact of Perceived Risk on Consumer Purchase Intention towards Luxury Brands in Case of Pandemic: The Moderating Role of Fear
RIMSHA KANWAL
Pages: 216-226
Details (558)
This paper explores the relationship between perceived risk, fear, and consumer purchase intention towards luxury brands in the case of COVID-19. An online survey was conducted on 750 consumers of luxury brands in Pakistan with a purposive sampling technique. The validity of the scale and the connection between the research model were identified by exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The study uncovered how COVID-19 wreaks havoc on luxury brands in Pakistan. It was found that perceived risk has a negative and significant effect on consumer purchase intention towards luxury brands in the case of COVID-19. Moreover, fear negatively moderating the relationship between perceived risk and consumer purchase intention towards luxury brands in the case of COVID-19. As fear playing a dominant role in the reduction of purchase intention in the case of an outbreak, a brand's industry needs to prepare some strategies in advance that control the negative emotions of consumers for shopping. Considering the uniqueness of the study, it is based on two theories include Psychometric Paradigm and Expectancy-Value model that explains how perceived risk changes the consumer purchase intention during an outbreak.
Keywords: COVID-19, Perceived Risk, Fear, Consumer Purchase Intention, Luxury Brands.
19Investigating the Relationship between Work-family Enrichment and Psychological Well-being: The Mediating Role of Meaningful Work.
NOSHEEN SARWAT, AMMAR HUSSAIN and TARIQ IQBAL KHAN
Pages: 227-234
Details (440)
Competitive pressures and dynamic workplaces have presented individuals with numerous challenges at the work place. Work seems more like a necessity and lacks passion and purpose and meaning. Moreover, unemployment rates in developing countries force individuals to take up work in which they are not even interested. The present study investigated the effect of work to family enrichment (WFE) on psychological well-being of individuals through the mediating role of meaningful work based on the assumptions of spillover theory. Resources acquired at work enrich individual’s family life which make work look more meaningful and in turn has positive consequences for psychological health of an individual. The unit of analysis for this study was individuals working in various banks of Pakistan. Data were collected from 215 full time bankers working in public and private banks of Pakistan. Banking industry was chosen in part due to its complex nature and further because of the lucrative incentives and training and development it offers to individuals working for these banks. Data were analyzed using model 4 given in PROCESS MACRO based on bootstrapping which is considered one of the best techniques for mediation analysis. Results supported all the hypotheses of this study. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that work should be designed in such a way that it enriches the family life of individuals, this creates a purpose and meaning in work and has positive consequences for the psychological health of individuals.
Keywords: Work-Family Enrichment, Meaningful Work, Psychological Well-Being, Spillover Theory.
20Investigation of Simultaneous Occurrence of Citizenship and Dysfunctional Behaviours within an Educational Context
MUHAMMAD NAWAZ, TAYYABA RAFIQUE MAKHDOOM and AZEEM AKHTER BHATTI
Pages: 235-246
Details (367)
Student Citizenship and dysfunctional behaviour impact the performance of higher educational institutions. Furthermore, some students can display both behaviours due to various antecedents. There has been some debate on the occurrence of both behaviours from same individuals within a business context. However, this phenomenon has not been investigated within Pakistani higher educational context. The objective of this research is to investigate these behaviours through accounts of students who are experiencing the behaviours withy in Pakistani higher educational context. Qualitative approach was used by conducting semi-structured in-depth interviews to capture in-depth experiences of students related to SCB and SDB The findings of the study suggest that students may exhibit both behaviours simultaneously under same and different stimulus. Furthermore, these behaviours are influenced by rewards and justice perception of the students.
Keywords: Citizenship Behaviour, Dysfunctional Behaviour, Phenomenology, Social Exchange Theory, Qualitative.

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