Year 2020 , Volume  9, Issue 4, Part 2
1The Causality between Gross Fixed Capital Formation, Trade Deficit, Exchange Rate, and the Economic Growth of Pakistan
Pages: 138-147
Details (483)
The research paper studies the causal link between gross domestic product, gross fixed-capital formations, exchange rate, and trade deficits in Pakistan from 1986 to 2013 with time serial data. ADF and Phillip Perron tests are recycled for stationary and at the first difference, each variable is unified. According to the Johansen Co-integration test, the presence of longer-term Co-integration among variables is displayed, and the Error Correction model expresses that 49.27 % of short-term uncertainty is adjusted in long-term equilibrium. Moreover, the Granger causality test presented causality among the variables. While the conclusion showed that such variables have unidirectional causation.
Keywords: Trade Deficit, Exchange Rate, Gross Fixed Capital Formation, Gross Domestic Product, ADF, Phillip Perron, Johansen Co-integration, Error Correction model, & Granger Causality test.
2Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Emotional Labor and Employees Job Performance Behavior
Pages: 148-164
Details (309)
Based on emotional labor theory, this cross-sectional quantitative study examines the relationship between the emotional intelligence, emotional labor, counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and organization citizenship behavior (OCB). Data collected from 315 hospital employees through questionnaire. Data was analyzed through PLS-SEM. Findings indicated a statistically significance relationship between the emotional intelligence and emotional labor as well as organization citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. The research highlights the importance of emotional intelligence skills for the favorable working outcomes. It is recommended for the organizations to understand how employees engage in emotional labor strategies (deep acting and surface acting) with both clients and organizational members (insiders) in order to avoid CWB and exhibit OCB.
Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Emotional Labor, Deep Acting, Surface Acting, Counterproductive Work Behavior, Organization Citizenship Behavior.
3An Evaluation of the Changing Nature of Power-Dependence Relations in Organizations Within the Context of the Resource Dependence Theory
Pages: 165-179
Details (431)
Resource dependence theory examines the activities carried out by locating and managing power and dependence relations, that form as a result of the relations between organizations, according to the conditional changes in the environment in which they operate. However, organizations need to develop strategies and act according to environmental changes in order to sustain their maintain their survival in their environment. At this point, within the context of resource dependence theory, on the basis of the relationship between an organization and its environment, the balance of power-based relations are crucial within the scope of their dependence on necessary resources and the struggle to obtain these resources. The main problem of this study is to consider the changing nature of power-dependence relations between organizations within the context of resource dependence theory. The theoretical discussion of power-dependence relations between organizations has been supported and explained by functional, structural, and institutional approaches. Resource dependence theory is included in functional approaches and considers an organization as a social system that tries to adapt to the conditional constraints of its environment. Accordingly, the organizations of resource dependence theory included in functional approaches are determined according to how much their performances contribute to their survival, their ability to solve organizational problems, and coalitions with various abilities and interest groups.
Keywords: Resource Dependence Theory, Power, Dependence, Environment, Organization.
4Impact of Online Customer Relationship Management (OCRM) Upon Customers Satisfaction in Post Covid-19 Scenario. A Case Analysis of Standard Chartered Bank Pakistan
Pages: 180-195
Details (788)
This study investigates the impacts of online Customer Relationship Management (OCRM) on the level of customer satisfaction and retention in the Pakistani Banking industry. Recent past has witnessed workplace shift toward workspace especially in post-Covid scenario. Covid-19 pandemic have pushed banks in developed countries to move its day-to-day operations to purely online, following which Pakistani banks are also going global yet customer satisfaction and retention still remains a dilemma. A case analysis of Standard Chartered Bank has been chosen in the relatively troubled state of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. This research is an attempt to empirically highlight the importance of OCRM for the banks’ overall growth and performance. A causal relation between customers’ satisfaction and retention with that of OCRM is examined through various pathways. Primary data from 100 staff members from 18 branches of the bank were collected using convenience sampling and questionnaire-based survey in summer 2020. Six hypotheses were developed and testing using regression analysis. The results suggest that OCRM bears direct positive relation with customer satisfaction and retention with moderating effects of perceived value, price and switching cost. Through customized services, banks should rigorously pursue online services and treat this pandemic an opportunity. Online services can be viable platform for positioning the banks’ new offerings to customers. Important lessons and recommendations for banking industry are put forward. The paper concludes with limitations and contributions.
Keywords: Standard Chartered, Online CRM, customers, satisfaction, retention, banks, Covid-19.
5Conscious Decision to Engage in Defensive Silence: An Expectancy Theory Perspective
Pages: 196-211
Details (496)
The supervisor’s negative attitude towards voice and unavailability of communication channels are considered significant predictors of defensive silence. However, lesser consideration has been given to provide an in-depth explanation of how and why these motivational forces influence employees’ step by step conscious decision to engage in defensive silence. This qualitative study incorporates semi-structured interviews with bank employees of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Thematic coding and causal networking techniques were used to transcribe and analyse data and derive emerging themes. Taking influence from the elements of Expectancy Theory, this paper extends theory in the context of service sector by presenting two expectancy theory based defensive silence models. The first model provides reasons such as favoritism, political appointment, supervisor’s self-interest etc., to explain how and why the supervisor’s negative attitude towards voice influences employees’ cognitive mechanism to adopt defensive silence. Similarly, the second model presents the emerging themes like centralized decision system, career ladder, leg pulling, professional jealousy etc., to explain how and why unavailability of communication channels predicts defensive silence. Thus, the study extends the application of expectancy theory and defensive silence phenomenon to new empirical context. The paper concludes with a discussion on implications and recommendations for future work.
Keywords: Defensive Silence; Supervisor’s Negative Attitude Towards Voice; Unavailability of Communication Channels.
6Determinants of Audit Firm Selection Decision: A Qualitative Study of Firms Listed on Pakistani Stock Exchange (PSX)
Pages: 212-222
Details (482)
The objective of this study is to offer detailed and updated overview of the factors perceived by the audit committee members to select external auditors. Moreover, the study aims to explore that what are the main determinants perceived by the clients from their external auditors. Qualitative research design is used, and open-ended interviews has been conducted to explore the phenomena under investigation. The contextual setting of the study is provided by financial firms listed on Pakistan stock exchange (PSX-100). The study finds that management continues to provide input into the selection decision of external auditors because the audit committees view management as an important information source. Audit committee seeks input from management to assess the external audit accessibility, reputation, firm’s industry knowledge and technical expertise. The result of the study suggests that more regulations are required to liable the audit committees for selecting external audit firm. The management input raises the audit risk and mitigate the audit independence. The findings remain robust for audit firms and companies looking for an independent and transparent relationship. Also, the study has implications to build transparent financial disclosure practices.
Keywords: Audit Quality, Pakistan Stock Exchange, Clients Perceived Value.
7Is External Debt a Boon or a Curse? Empirical Evidence from South Asian Countries
Pages: 223-232
Details (301)
Over the years, the South Asian countries were facing the dilemma of twin’s deficits because they had failed to generate sufficient revenues to finance their budget. Consequently, they were continuously relying on both domestic and external debt to bridge these deficits which had put a severe implication on their economic growth. Their financial position continued to deteriorate and undermined all the efforts of the governments made to stimulate economic growth. The governments in these countries failed to generate enough revenues through internal sources. Therefore, the deficits were normally fiancé through external sources. The paper examined whether the external debt was a blessing or course to the economic growth of South Asian countries i.e. Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. For this purpose 30 years of panel data of these countries from 1990 to 2019 had been taken. Fixed effect model and Panel Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) Approach had been applied to examine the short-run and long-run association among the variables. The natural log of GDP per capita was used as a proxy for economic growth. The other variables were external debt, initial GDP, foreign direct investment, trade openness, investment, and secondary school investment rate. The outcomes of the study indicated that that external debt had a negative impact on economic growth both in the short-run and long-run. This revealed that external debt had not been utilized effectively and productively. The study suggested that effort would be made to manage the external debt and reduced the twin's deficits to minimize the harmful impact of external debt on the economy.
Keywords: South Asian, External Debt, ARDL, Fixed Effect Model, Economic Growth.
8Domestic Terrorism, Investment and Economic Growth: Evidence from Developing Countries
Pages: 233-244
Details (313)
The main objective of the study is to empirically examine the relationship between domestic terrorism, investment and economic growth. The study finds the implication of domestic terrorism on investment and growth among 26 Muslim and 14 Christian developing countries. Data regarding the incidence of terrorism are obtained from Global Terrorism Database (2015). While, economic data are obtained from World Development Indicators (WDI, 2015). The data on external and internal conflict have been extracted from Global Conflict Risk Index (GCRI, 2015) for the time period 1990-2015. Ordinary least square (OLS), feasible generalized least squares (FGLS) and system generalized method of moment (SGMM) approaches were applied to ensure robust results with different specification of models by using dummy variable. The value of Dummy variable is 1, if country is Muslim otherwise 0. For all specifications, it is confirmed that increase in domestic terrorism will decrease the level of investment directly, but the percentage decrease in investment due to terrorism is high among Muslim as compared to Christian developing economies. The results indicate the public policy efforts to mitigate the loss of private investment which can be done initially by public investments to ensure public safety.
Keywords: OLS, FGLS, SGMM, Domestic Terrorism, Muslim and Christian Developing Countries.
9Automatization for Product Quality as a SME Strategy to Compete Globally
Pages: 245-255
Details (308)
Businesses need to constantly maintain high quality in their products, and more importantly to remain competitive even at a global level, which is the current market pressure and need for many SME in countries underdevelopment, where more global enterprises have arrived leaving local businesses to the extreme of perishing. Therefore, already employed strategies in global companies to improve their product quality are essential to be reconsidered and to be implemented by local plants. Automation had become a highly important strategy in the manufacturing industry to satisfy customers and stand out from their competitors, more because today customers increasingly demand sustainable and higher quality products. The aim of this research was to validate the level of automatization and its effect onto product quality, in local, small, and medium enterprises (SME). A survey with two constructs was applied to manufacturing SME in the Aguascalientes region, Mexico. The data was analysed using SPSS-26 software. The regression analyses demonstrated that automation had a significant and positive effect on product quality in local SME, however, automatization is not recognized as a priority strategy leaving SME behind global competitive businesses in terms of product quality.
Keywords: Quality, Strategies, Management, SME, Manufacturing.
10Instability of Textile Production in Pakistan: Stochastic Frontier Model Approach
Pages: 256-269
Details (245)
Textile industry is the largest industry of Pakistan and like other industries it is facing not only high and escalating cost of electricity and gas but also lack of market access. This study has computed production uncertainty (PU) due to technical inefficiency (TIE) of textile exporting and manufacturing (TEM) firms in Pakistan. We has obtained data from annual reports of 98 companies for the year 2017-18. We has applied stochastic production frontier approach with half normal distribution of ui. PU with confidence bounds had been computed. Inefficiencies (ui/εi) were statistically significant at 5 % level of significance. The mean PU was 0.0045. The computed scores of PU of TEM firms in Pakistan during 2017-18 showed that maximum numbers of firms had their PU score low and close to minimum PU score and very few firms had high PU score and close to maximum PU score.
Keywords: Textile Manufacturing Firms, Production Uncertainty, Technical Inefficiency, Confidence Bounds, MLE Technique, Cobb-Douglas Production Function.
11Necessary and Supportive Conditions for Transfer of Knowledge: A Conceptual Framework
Pages: 270-281
Details (261)
This paper highlights the conditions (within the organizational environment) that play a vital role in pursuing the sender to share knowledge and the receiver motivated enough to reproduce or apply the received knowledge. Though these conditions are discussed in knowledge transfer literature, yet a comprehensive framework based on all the elements of transfer of knowledge is not available. This study has taken the basic two-person communication model into account and has defined two sets of conditions that are essential for the transfer of knowledge. The first tier of the framework is the communication nucleus which defines the elements of transfer of knowledge aligned with the two-person communication model whereas, the second tier of the framework spells out the conditionality for a successful transfer of knowledge. Two sets of conditions; one based on content factors labeled as necessary conditions and the other based on contextual factors labeled as supportive conditions are comprehensively explained. The framework claims that content factors are necessary for the transfer of knowledge and their absence will cease the transfer process whereas supportive condition accelerates the transfer process, their absence though may not cease the transfer process. The conceptual framework can be used as a set of policy guidelines for the knowledge management strategy formation and application within organizations along with creating the conducive environment required for creating and nurturing opportunities for transfer of knowledge.
Keywords: Knowledge Transfer, Conditions for Transfer of Knowledge, Communication Nucleus.
12Transformational Leadership is Shaping the Research & Development Culture of Pakistani Universities: A Case Analysis
Pages: 282-298
Details (254)
This research analyses 629 university leaders and investigates the effect of personality attributes and cross cultural experiences as predictors of dynamic cross cultural competencies in an research and developemnt setting. The study finds out and suggests that transformational leadership develops through work related and non-work related activities of cultural as well as personality characteristics.
Keywords: Transformational Leadership, Cross Culture, Personality Attributes, Global Leaders.
13Role of Competition and Stakeholders in Driving Financial Performance: A Case of Microfinance Banks of Pakistan.
Pages: 299-308
Details (255)
Theoretical and conceptual literature shows that stakeholder integration has some impact on the financial performance of the non-financial firms, while this study tests the above relationship in microfinance bank setting in Pakistan. The mediating role of competitive intensity has also been tested. The results shows that stakeholder integration has strong positive impact on financial performance while competitive intensity magnifies the impact on financial performance.
Keywords: Stakeholder Integration, Competitive Intensity, Financial Performance, Microfinance Banks, Pakistan.
14Determinants of Price Rigidity and Flexibility: Some Survey Evidence for the Pakistan.
Pages: 309-317
Details (267)
The objective of the study is to estimate the determinants of price stickiness or flexibility. Data is collected through structured questionnaire from 342 firms, which are selected through stratified random sampling technique from the Industrial Estate of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. To estimate the determinants of price flexibility/rigidity, models are estimated through ordinary least squares technique and binary logistic technique. The most important factors for price stickiness are implicit/explicit price contracts and minimum price volatility. Imperfect competitive market structure, number of regular customers, backward-looking behavior, and credibility of central bank and size of the firm are important determinants of price rigidity. While economic literacy and information set regarding expected inflation make the prices flexible. Study recommend that monetary policy of Pakistan should use other transmission channels of money supply instead of traditional channel, because it is found that the degree of price rigidity is low in Pakistan.
Keywords: Price Rigidity, Price Flexibility, Price Contract, Frequency of Price Change.
15A Systematic Literature Review on Antecedents of Consumer Engagement
Pages: 318-337
Details (300)
The major dilemma of marketing professionals is to justify the investment or expenditure on activities related to consumer engagement. Antecedents of consumer engagement are deeply rooted in the unique and specific differences that countries and/or regions present in terms of their social, legal, economic, political, and technological dimensions. Antecedents must be different for consumers from country a, region 1 than country b, region 2. There cannot be a commonality of antecedents for the 196 countries in the world. This research is among the first steps to make it possible. First, this research performed rigorous systematic literature review to consolidate all antecedents of consumer engagement acknowledged in previous quality research papers. Second, a systematic endeavour to generalize the antecedents of consumer engagement that fits all situation and context. The third contribution is the future research agenda of consumer engagement that is yet to be explored. For this purpose, strict inclusion and exclusion criteria implemented. Among hundreds of articles, a total 42 articles were selected, which fulfilled the criteria. Strict criteria were necessary to improve the quality of work. The study compiled all the antecedents in a table and concluded some highly ranked and high-frequency antecedents. A total of 22 antecedents were concluded among which, the study has discussed the topmost highly relevant yet most essential antecedents of consumer engagement. This study generalized the antecedents under broader terms. These top antecedents which are most essential are social, value, identity, interaction, involvement, experience, satisfaction, information, attachment, and participation. In the analysis part, all top antecedents discussed along with future research directions.
Keywords: Consumer Engagement, Customer Engagement, Systematic Literature Review, SLR.
16The Role of Talent Management Practices on Employee Innovative Work Behaviour: Moderating Role Transformational Leadership
Pages: 338-346
Details (352)
The present study was conducted to examine the effect of talent management practices on Employee Innovative Work Behavior in project-based organizations. The study also examined the moderating effect of Transformational Leadership between talent management practices and Employee Innovative Work Behavior. The data was collected from project-based organizations like software houses, construction companies, and NGOs in Peshawar city. The convenience sampling technique was used to gather the data. For this purpose, a total of 220 questionnaires were distributed, and 201responses were recorded. The Preacher and Hayes process macro was adopted to check the moderating effect. The results of the study suggest that Transformational leadership strongly moderates the relationship between talent management practices and employee innovative work behavior. This research has a significant contribution to the project management domain. The study has some limitations and as the cross-sectional method was used for data collection. Future research directions were also suggested like, different sectors such as manufacturing firms, the health sector, the educations sector, the banking sector, and the telecommunication sector, etc can also be the target for generalization of results.
Keywords: Talent Management Practice (TMP), Employee Innovative Work Behaviour (EIWB), Transformational Leadership (TL).
17Non-Performing Loan and Financial Stability of Banking Industry in Pakistan
Pages: 347-356
Details (411)
The objectives of this study to assess the state of financial stability of commercial banks in Pakistan and then estimate how good, bad and worst economic conditions would influence the stability. Our design of the study is a mix of techniques. Pakistan have not experienced financial crisis due to some shocks, therefore stress events and its effects not included in design. This study examines the effect of non-performing loans on financial stability empirically. Based on the above premise, this thesis investigates the association of financial stability with non-performing loans for all commercial banks of Pakistan for the period of 2014-2018. The study used the 27 commercial banks having 162 bank year observations. The study measured of financial stability (FS) through the financial leverage ratio and liquidity ratio using the common effect model. For the non-performing loans this study uses the non-performing loan ratio. Using secondary data that is panel in nature and applying panel data models for analysis, the study finds out that non-performing loans negatively associated with financial stability of commercial banks in Pakistan.
Keywords: Loan, Finance, Banking, Stability, Pakistan.
18The Problems of Legal Education in Pakistan: Teaching and Learning, Curriculum, and Assessment Methods
Pages: 357-368
Details (724)
There are very few studies that identify problems with legal education in Pakistan. Almost none compared problems of legal education in Pakistan with that in the developed world to show where Pakistan is standing on the score of the standards of legal education. This study is addressing this important gap by focusing on three important problems of legal education in Pakistan: outdated curriculum of undergraduate and postgraduate programs of law in educational institutions of Pakistan; traditional methods of assessment; and inadequate teaching and learning methods. These problems of legal education have serious implications for the justice system of Pakistan. Due to the aforementioned problems, lawyers impart limited knowledge to legal practice. As a result, they cannot contribute to the litigation process adequately. Same lawyers later become judges. Their limited learning affects the decision-making process and the administration of justice. Therefore, it is important to examine and evaluate these problems. Comparing current practices in Pakistan's educational institutions with that in developed countries, this article critically explains the aforementioned problems and recommends how those problems can be addressed.
Keywords: Legal Education, Management, Learning, Methods.
19Impact of Narcissistic Leadership on Employees Counterproductive Work Behavior under Mediating Role of Psychological Contract Breach and Moderating Role of Psychological Capital
Pages: 369-380
Details (601)
This study investigates the effect of narcissistic leadership on employees’ counterproductive work behavior under the lens of social exchange theory. The mediating role of psychological contract breach and moderating effect of psychological capital is also analyzed in said causal relationship. Using convenience sampling technique, data was collected from 302 middle tier employees working across banking sector of Pakistan. Data was analyzed through statistical techniques in SPSS. The results disclosed that narcissistic leader (NL) behavior significantly affects psychological contract breach (PCB) and counterproductive work behavior (CWB) of employees. PCB positively effects CWB and partially mediates between NL and CWB. Contrary to expectation the moderation role of psychological capital (PsyCap) between NL and CWB is not established. Thus, implications are provided for targeted sector and discussion is elaborated for similar sectors as well.
Keywords: Narcissistic Leadership (NL), Psychological Capital (PsyCap), Psychological Contract Breach (PCB), Counterproductive work Behavior (CWB).
20Corporate Social Responsibility and Firm Performance: Evidence from Pakistan
Pages: 381-389
Details (445)
The current study aims at exploring the relationship of CSR practices with firm performance (FP) in the non-financial sector of the Pakistan stock exchange (PSX). For this purpose, the study uses sample data of 231 companies listed at PSX. The study uses “donation amount to sales” as a proxy variable for CSR practices and return on equity (ROE), return on assets (ROA) as the proxies of firm performance. The models are tested using a panel regression estimation technique with a fixed effect method, as suggested by Hausman test. The results show that CSR is significantly positively related to ROE. Findings indicate that investment in CSR brings positive change in a firm‟s profitability which ultimately leads to an increase in the shareholder‟s wealth.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Pakistan Stock Exchange, Firm Performance, Fixed Effect Model, Non-financial Sector.
21An Empirical Assessment of Alternative Methods of Variance-Covariance Matrix
Pages: 390-401
Details (308)
The current study aims at the estimation of a group of variance-covariance methods using the data set of the non-financial sector of the Pakistan stock exchange. The study compares nine covariance estimators using two assessment criteria of root mean square error and standard deviation of minimum variance portfolios to gauge on accuracy and effectiveness of estimators. The findings of the study based on RMSE and risk behaviour of MVPs suggest that portfolio managers receive no additional benefit for using more sophisticated measures against equally weighted variance-covariance estimators in the construction of portfolios.
Keywords: Variance-Covariance Estimators, Portfolio Construction, Mean-Variance Optimization.
22Impact of Public Debt, Lending Interest Rate, Public Spending and Money Supply on Private Consumption in South Asian Countries: An Econometric Analysis
Pages: 402-410
Details (267)
The public debt of South Asian countries has witnessed a continuous increase from the last three decades which has badly affected the household private consumption expenditures. High public debt can lead to steep losses for banks, both domestic and international, undermines the stability of financial systems in both the crisis-hit country and others. This can hit economic growth as well as private consumption. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of public debt on private consumption in South Asian countries i.e. Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Besides public debt, the impact of some other important macroeconomic, fiscal, and monetary variables like lending interest rate, public spending and money supply have also been examined. For this purpose, 31 years of panel data from 1990 to 2020 of South Asian countries have been taken. The study has used a variety of econometric techniques like Robust Least Square Regression, Panel Cointegration, Error Correction Model (ECM), Wald test, and Panel Fully Modified Least Squares (FMOLS) approach to examine the short-run and long-run relationship among the variables. The results of Robust Least Square Regression indicate that public debt discourages private consumption. The lending interest rate also badly affected private consumption. The other variables like public spending and money supply have a favorable impact on private consumption. The results of the Kao Residual Panel Cointegration Test and the Johansen Fisher Panel Cointegration Test indicate that there exists a long run relationship among the variables. The results of the ECM and Wald Test reveal that a long run and short-run causality is running from independent variables to the dependent variable respectively. The study recommends that by using monetary and fiscal policies effectively the private consumption and economic growth can be stimulated in the economy.
Keywords: South Asia, Public Debt, Private Consumption, Lending Interest Rate Public Spending, Money Supply, Robust Least Square Regression, ECM, FMOLS, Wald Test.
23Acquisition of Land for Housing Societies in Pakistan: Gap between Theory and Practice
Pages: 411-422
Details (1103)
In order to start a housing society acquisition of land is a first step and the Land Acquisition Act 1894 also encourages the housing companies as it is reflected from the preamble of this Act. This enactment is the most important law relating to housing industry of Pakistan. When this enactment was promulgated its preamble was designed in such a way that private sector along with Government is encouraged to acquire land for public purposes. This enactment is a double-edged instrument. For Pakistan this enactment in its present shape is not proving to promote housing industry rather a major reason for undermining investment in the housing industry of Pakistan. Most of the housing societies in Pakistan do not acquire land for the housing societies under Land Acquisition Act 1894, so, there is a gap between theory and practice. The actual practice is that housing developers purchased lands from their own resources at high prices and then sell it on very high prices resultantly providing housing units to only rich people. In its present shape there is a very cumbersome process to acquire land under Land Acquisition Act 1894 and the Act hinders the speedy acquisition of land for housing industry. Land Acquisition Act 1894 provides for payment of compensation of land acquired on the basis of market value but in practice the price of the lands acquired under this Act are paid on the basis of registration documents which are undervalued. There is massive litigation on the point of determination of market value additionally, approves the position to get land apparently for a 'public reason', inside the importance of the Land Acquisition Act, 1894. The article aims to explore and analyze the relevant law with respect to acquisition of land for housing societies as well as to find out obstacles faced by housing societies in acquiring the land. The discussion would also be helpful to check the efficacy of present law of land acquisition in achieving goal of housing for all. For that critical analysis of the relevant laws is done by using qualitative sort of research.
Keywords: Land Acquisition Act 1894, Housing Societies, Pakistan, Gap, Theory and Practice.
24A Study on Effectual Decision Making of Construction Projects in Islamabad, Pakistan: Analyzing the Influence of Risk-Taking Behavior, Leadership Skills, and Business Case Implementation.
Pages: 423-440
Details (441)
The purpose of this study is to examine various aspects which include business case implementation, risk-taking behavior and leadership skills impacts on construction sector of Islamabad, Pakistan. A questionnaire was prepared for the targeted construction firms. Sample size used for analysis was 215. On receipt of the data, a comparative analysis is done by using SPSS software to choose the better options. The better option from business case implementation and the leadership skill have been instrumental in the decision making while risk-taking behavior will have no effect on it. Approaches to the Project management are becoming flexible and more adoptive to compete with the challenges arising out of rapidly change environment and complex projects. However, consideration for the possible potential changes regarding decision making in projects is very rare and less discovered. The Effectual decision making approach in the construction industry has rapidly been growing. It seems that gradually the effectuation approach would replace the traditional methods that have long been in the usage.
Keywords: Effectual Decision Making, Risk-Taking Behavior, Business Case Implementation, Leadership Skills, Construction Industry.
25Tracing Causality and Co-movement between Pakistani and the Leading Foreign Stock Markets: A Graph Theoretic Approach
Pages: 441-455
Details (314)
This paper developed and modify Peter and Clark (PC) causality algorithm to revisit the causal linkages between Pakistan and the leading foreign stock markets. Initially, the PC algorithm was conceived to determine causality in cross sectional data. Later on, (Swanson & Granger, 1997) for the first time used VAR residuals in PC algorithm to determine the causal ordering in time series. However, the weak point attached to VAR residuals are that it carries only contemporaneous causal information and remove all the past information. This study modify the PC algorithm based on recursive residuals proposed by (Rehman & Malik, 2014) and explore the causality among exchange rate, interest rate and stock market prices. The overall empirical results of modified PC algorithm indicate that causality is running from exchange rate, interest rate and stock market of India and Bangladesh to Pakistani stock market. The results observed from GARCH-GJR model show spill over effect from the leading foreign stock markets toward Pakistan stock market excluding Sir Lanka. The results of the study will guide the investors to be vigilant in decision making in diversified portfolio investment and hedging.
Keywords: Financial Markets, PC algorithms, Causality, Graph theoretic Approach, GARCH, GJR.
26Impact of Green Product Knowledge and Perception on Green Purchase Intention: Moderating Role of Price Consciousness
Pages: 456-464
Details (476)
Green products are rapidly moving from niche markets to large market segments and number of consumers purchasing green products are rapidly penetrating mainstream markets (Roberts, 1996). As majority of the consumers are concerned about environment, green markets are developing rapidly and quickly (Peateie and Crane, 2005). These green markets have created essence of doing green marketing. Price is one of such factors that may prevent a green consumer to buy an eco-friendly product (Bonini and Oppenheim, 2008). Tanner and Wölfing Kast, 2003 also confirms this relationship between buying intentions of consumers and price of green products.Also, environmental consciousness among customers is increasing making them more concerned about green and responsible purchasing of food. By analyzing this by using theory of reasoned actions, green purchase intentions is affected differently by different and type of prices. Data collected from a sample of 400 consumers while, structured questionnaires were used to gather primary data from consumers. For hypothesis testing process macro was used. CFA was run by using AMOS. There have been discussed results alongwith recommendations and future directions at the end.
Keywords: Consumer Product Knowledge, Perceived Quality, Perceived Saving, Consumer Green Attitude, Green Purchase Intention, Price Consciousness.
27Identification of the Practicing Leadership Characteristics
Pages: 465-476
Details (258)
The present content-analytic study of the memoir “In the Line of Fire” by Musharraf (2006) aimed at the exploration of the prevalent themes in the context of leadership practices of Musharraf especially with reference to post 9/11 scenarios. The main aim of the study was to explore the major leadership qualities of Musharraf through the content analysis of the memoir. After reading between the lines and with the help of the committee approach, 12 themes were derived to serve the purpose of thematic analysis from the leadership perspective. The autobiography comprised of six chapters. Each part was considered as a unit of analysis. Thus, the book was divided into six units. A 5-point rating scale was devised to enumerate the strength of each theme on the basis of their degree of intensity. The results through the enumeration system included the strength of each theme in each unit and the sum of all themes in all units. Themes were found in order of their correspondent strength in the memoir, (1) leadership during stress, (2) followers, (3) freewill versus determinism, (4) narcissism, (5) leadership ethics, (6) state of conflicts and conflict handling, (7) power and influence, (8) communication, (9) decision making, (10) motivation to lead, (11) leadership development through education, training, and experience, and (12) vision respectively. Validity of the study was maintained through the selection of the themes with the help of committee approach. Reliability of the scoring system was maintained through partial inter-rater reliability. Textual elaboration of themes was discussed.
Keywords: Leadership, Vision, Decision Making, Power, Conflict Handling, Communication, Motivation.
28Moderating Role of Job Stress between Leadership and Decision Making in Low, Medium, and High Stress Occupations
Pages: 477-482
Details (297)
The study examined moderating role of job stress between laissez-faire leadership and avoidant decision-making style. The study also investigated the level of job stress in three occupation including universities in comparison with banks and hospitals classified as and low, medium and high stress occupations respectively. Data was collected through adopted questionnaire from hospitals (medical superintendents and officers), banks (managers and officers), and universities (heads and lecturers). First sample of 150 subordinates was collect in the first part to examine the level of job stress in three occupations. The second sample comprised of 1200 participants (300 supervisors and 900 subordinates). Before conducting the main study, as a pilot testing, 60 supervisors including 30 from each segment of participants were compared on job stress. Hospital superintendents significantly scored higher on job stress as compared to bank managers and head of departments in universities. Similarly, medical officers significantly scored higher on job stress as compared to bank officers and lecturers. Finally, job stress moderated the anticipated relationship.
Keywords: Laissez-faire, Avoidant Decision, Job Stress, Universities, Banks, Hospitals.
29Assessing Relationship Among Managerial Ownership, Leverage and Dividend Policy: Evidence From Pakistani Listed Firms in PSX 100 Index
Pages: 483-496
Details (266)
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the managerial ownership, leverage and dividend Payout. The analysis is performed using GMM estimation on a sample of 40 non-financial listed Firms of Pakistan stock exchange for the period 2010–2016. The results show that there is negative association between Managerial ownership and Leverage, Positive association between Managerial ownership and Dividend payout. Leverage and Dividend payout has negative association. However, conflicting to expectations, managerial ownership is found to have positive impact on dividend. It means that companies with higher levels of managerial holdings are consciously choosing higher level of dividends.
Keywords: Managerial Ownership, Leverage and Dividend Policy.
30The Impact of Financial Development on Earnings Management: Evidence from Pakistani Non-Financial Firms
Pages: 497-504
Details (251)
Besides, the corporate level governance factors and country level governance factors there is another crucial factor that affect the earnings manipulation practices, is country level Financial Development. Financial development would likely act to discipline managers, thereby minimizing their engagement in EM, therefore an effective financial development system helps to reduce the EM practices. Hence the main purpose of this research work is to investigate the impact of Financial development on accruals based earnings management by using panel data analysis taking sample of 257 non-financial firms listed in Pakistan stock exchange for the period of 2012 to 2019 through Fixed effect model.The results disclose that the financial development system of Pakistan negatively and significantly influence the EM activities of registered firm’s in Pakistan stock exchange. Hence, conclude that the strong financial system is effectively restrain the EM activities.The overall results are consistent with earlier literature that the advance FD enhance the controlling and analyzing of accounting informationby reducing the interference of management in the procedure of accounting accruals.
Keywords: Earnings Management, Financial Development, Financial Development Index.
31The Impact of Emerging Technologies on Consumer Protection Laws
Pages: 505-515
Details (156)
Emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, blockchain, and the Internet of Things are transforming the way that consumers interact with businesses and the marketplace. These technologies offer new opportunities for consumers to access information, compare products, and make informed purchasing decisions, but they also pose new challenges for regulators and policymakers in the area of consumer protection. In this abstract, we explore the impact of emerging technologies on consumer protection laws, examining the ways in which these technologies are shaping the regulatory landscape and the challenges and opportunities they present. We discuss the ways in which emerging technologies are changing the nature of consumer harm and the ways in which regulators and lawmakers must adapt to address these new threats. We also examine the role of consumer protection laws in promoting the use of emerging technologies to benefit consumers, by requiring companies to provide accurate and transparent information and by encouraging the development of technologies that help consumers protect their interests. Finally, we conclude with a call for greater collaboration between regulators, industry stakeholders, and consumer advocates to create a more secure, transparent, and fair marketplace for all consumers in the digital age.
Keywords: Consumer Protection laws, Artificial Intelligence, Policy Maker, Technology.