Year 2020 , Volume 9, Issue 3, Part 2 Year 2020 , Volume  9, Issue 3, Part 2
1To Mull Remittance and Misery Index of Selected Asian Countries: A Panel ARDL Approach
MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM SAEED, SIDRA RAZA and FARAN ALI
Pages: 157-163
Details (527)
The objective of the study is to empirically probe the impact of misery index on remittance. Six Asian countries have been selected for the period of 1980-2016. The study uses panel ARDL approach with Cointegration. The results of Kao test shows that remittances and misery index are co-integrated. Panel ARDL results show that misery index has a positive and significant impact on remittances in the long run but it is negative and insignificant in the short run. The results underpin the altruism theory in remittance sending behavior in the selected Asian countries. Remittance and unstable macroeconomic condition are directly proportional to each other in Asian developing countries. The government may scrutinize and determine the threshold level of instability otherwise the inflow of remittance might decrease.
Keywords: Altruism, Ardl, Inflation, Misery Index, Remittance, Unemployment.
2Mediating Role of Perceived Organizational Support on the Relationship between Leader-Member Exchange and Innovative Work Behavior of R&D Employees: A Social Exchange Perspective
EDIP SABAHATTIN METE
Pages: 164-180
Details (429)
All executives in today's highly competitive business environment must demonstrate effective leadership skills. The leader-member exchange is one of the basic ingredients of leadership that can embody employee behaviors to exhibit innovative work behavior and perceived organizational support within organizations. The innovative work behavior depends on the supportive work environment and such organizational climates are perceived as being oriented towards creativity and innovation. The research findings signify that the relationship between leader-member exchange and innovative work behavior is mediated by perceived organizational support that serves as the main goal of this study. By applying a variety of statistical techniques including exploratory factor analysis and mediation effect analysis on a sample composed of 268 employees from a state-owned entity undertaking R&D projects, strong empirical support has been found for all the theory-driven hypothesized statements, including the mediating mechanism of perceived organizational support. This study is aimed to provide an important contribution to the existing literature by offering a profound description of how leadership characteristics of employee-centered supervisors affect the dispositional state of the employees and ultimately their roles in organizational sustainability. The results of the present study provide managers and employees with a mechanism in order to enable innovation at the workplace so that the organization can also succeed in tough competitive environments. This study provides insights into the dynamic structure of leader-member exchange in the behavioral and organizational context and it concludes by succeeding theoretical and practical implications for employees’ innovative work behavior and suggesting directions for further empirical investigations.
Keywords: Leader-Member Exchange, Innovative Work Behavior, Perceived Organizational Support, Research And Development Enterprise.
3Constraints Regarding Green Financing Due to Limited Scope of Capital Requirements in Basel Accord. An Evidence from Development Financial Institutions of Pakistan Dealing in Agricultural Finance.
MIRZA MUHAMMAD ALI BAIG, NISAR AHMAD and NADIA NASIR
Pages: 181-192
Details (383)
The aim of this study is to discuss how the stance of a financial institution in associating a green financing can be developed within an ambiance where monetary organizations are facing the challenges of capital requirements by (BA)-III. Basel regulations would not segregate green loans from other financial facilities regarding risk-weightings. The investigators contend that (BA)-III essentials are not supporting the lending facilities of viable financial activities. Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limited-(ZTBL) that plays a vital role in agricultural development sector of Pakistan is examined. The financial institution’s capability to increase lending in lieu of green-projects later by the implementation of (BA)-III is engrossed. Investigators explore that whether risk-weightings of green financing stood level down to 49.70 percent from 100, (ZTBL)’s Capital Adequacy Ratio-(CAR) may be 4.5 percent points higher. Ongoing study assumes the risk-weightage pertaining green loans need to moderate for ordering to boost up viable progress.
Keywords: Sustainable Development Financing-(SDF), Green Banking Loans-(GBL), Financial Institutions-(FI), Basel Accord-(BA), Environment Social and Governance-(ESG), Capital Adequacy Ratio-(CAR), Minimum Capital Requirement-(MCR).
4Relationship between Leadership Commitment and Performance of Public Sector Universities of Punjab, Pakistan
HAJRA BIBI and MAHR MUHAMMAD SAEED AKHTAR
Pages: 193-201
Details (366)
The current study aims to examine the relationship between leadership commitment and performance of the public sector universities of the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The Public sector universities are referred as Higher Education Organizations (HEOs) in this study. The study is quantitative and the data were collected by means of survey from the respondents. The study includes public sector general category universities of the Province (Punjab, Pakistan) which are located in the different areas of the province. There are twelve general public sector universities in the Province among those seven were included in the population which comprised of department heads, teaching faculty and students. The findings of the study revealed that there is a moderate positive relationship between leadership commitment and performance of HEOs. Three sub-factors of commitment have been included in the study in order to examine the role of leadership commitment. The findings of the study show that the continuance commitment influences HEOs performance. The highest correlation of continuance commitment has practical implications for HEOs performance. The leaders who have spent several years of their lives to serve institutions are more knowledgeable, skillful and experienced, therefore, they are in a better situation to manage the tasks. On the basis of the findings, it can be concluded that merely leadership is not sufficient for improvement of performance, but there is also a need of supportive and committed team in order to excel.
Keywords: Leadership Commitment, Public Sector Universities, Performance, Punjab, Pakistan.
5The Effect of Time Management on the Academic Performance of Students in the Higher Educational Institutions of Islamabad
MUHAMMAD JEHANGIR KHAN, AQSA ASHRAF and AAMIR NADEEM
Pages: 202-211
Details (42279)
This study investigates the effect of students’ time management on their academic achievement in the higher education institutions of Islamabad. For this purpose, we collected data from a representative sample of students. We employ Pearsons’ correlation and regression analysis to investigate the influencing factors of academic performance. Our results show that students’ self-study has significant and positive association with their academic performance, which indicates that academic performance is increases with the increase in self-study hours. On the contrary, disproportionate involvement in social life enjoyment activities are detrimental to higher academic performance. Female students’ academic achievement is higher than that of male students. Perhaps, female students are good time managers and spend more time on self-study. For policy purpose, seminars should be arranged to educate students on how best to allocate their time being enrolled for a full-time study.
Keywords: Time Management, Academic Achievement, Islamabad.
6Disadvantaged Individuals: Stigma as a Source of Entrepreneurial Motivation to Thrive
RABIA NASEER, SHAHID JAN KAKAKHEL and FAYAZ ALI SHAH
Pages: 212-227
Details (516)
Stigma is almost overlooked in the understanding entrepreneurial venture of disadvantaged individuals to create a venture. However numerous studies associated disadvantage as a foundation to initiate a venture. We study a new sample as a disadvantaged group who has been pushed to live at the margin of society on account of their non-binary gender identity. Based on an inductive study of fifteen trans-entrepreneurs, our model indicates stigma as a source of entrepreneurial motivation. It activates a sense of resilience either to gain respect and economic need (personal benefit) or to change the perception of society around stigma (prosocial) which enables them to thrive by creating a venture. The findings of this study open new horizons for further theoretical development and empirical research. This study also presents a self-help mechanism to disadvantaged individuals that enable them to overcome stigma.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial Motivation, Gender-based Stigmatization, Displacement or/and Disadvantage.
7Total Factor Productivity and Economic Growth of Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis
GHULAM YAHYA KHAN, MEHRAN DIN MUHAMMAD and SALIK MEHBOOB
Pages: 228-241
Details (524)
The investigation of contribution of total factor productivity to economic-growth for Pakistan for period 1978-2019 was objective of current article. Johanson and Jusilies (1988, 1995) Co integration technique has been used to estimate the growth equation. Using growth accounting approach for estimation of total factor productivity. Labour force, physical-capital, human-capital and trade openness used as a set of control variables. To study the serial correlation we have use LM test. Wald test have been use as a coefficient diagnostic that have reported the existence of the short run relations ship also among the variable(s). The Granger-Causality test measure Causality of variables that shows some of variables had a Bi-directional causality and some of them have uni-directional causality. The study used collected data from world development indicators. In the particular, study found that there is long run relationship in TFP and Economic-growth as well as in short-run. This study is (i) among one of very few country specific investigations exploring Total Factor productivity (TFP) and growth nexus (ii) Using an advanced time series technique on most recent data set.
Keywords: Economic Growth, Cointegration, human capital, trade openness, Granger Causality, Pakistan.
8Link Between Employee Voice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Moderating Role of Psychological Safety
KAZIM SALMAN, SAJID HUSSAIN AWAN and NAZIA HABIB
Pages: 242-258
Details (1520)
Speaking up at the workplace has a double-edged sword effect. This effect is dependent on the context and the ways an individual raises voice. The current study finds that an employee’s voice contributes to organizational citizenship behavior, especially when employees feel psychologically safe. In this context, three dimensions of employees’ voice behavior were examined including supervisor-subordinate relationship, employee job satisfaction, and employee motivation that enhance organizational citizenship behavior. Additionally, the research also explores the moderating role of psychological safety that strengthens the relationship between employees’ voice and organizational citizenship behavior. Data collected from 361 employees using a survey technique, revealed that employees’ voice has a positive and significant impact on organizational citizenship behavior. It was also found that psychological safety significantly moderates the relationship between employee voice and organizational citizenship behavior. This study positively contributes to voice and organizational citizenship literature. The study suggests that organizations should encourage employees’ voice behavior and nurture a psychologically safe environment to improve organizational citizenship behavior among employees. This study also discusses the theoretical and practical implications of voice behavior and how it leads to organizational citizenship behavior.
Keywords: Employees Voice Behavior, Psychological Safety, Organizational Citizenship Behavior.
9Pakistans Trade Efficiency with its Free Trade Agreements, Preferential Trade Agreements, and Major Trading Partners
ZULFIQAR ALI KEERYO, ASAD RAZA ABIDI and JAZIB MUMTAZ
Pages: 259-265
Details (408)
Worldwide trade plays a significant part in encouraging Pakistan’s economic growth and development. For further enhancing the trade, the concerned quarters or authorities have dynamically grown the number of free trade agreements with its trading nations. However, there are various reasons for the surge of RTAs/FTAs worldwide. In this study, we estimated the trade efficiency of Pakistan’s exports and imports and its determinants. The stochastic gravity model was used with data from 13 countries starting from 1981 till 2018. The results suggest Pakistan’s trade is much below its true potential. The trade efficiency of exports contributed more as compared to the trade efficiency of imports. The average trade efficiency of exports stands at 36% which is still lower than the potential. This implies that Pakistan needs to explore new markets and develop value-added products to achieve 100% efficiency. The average efficiency of imports of 20% reflects a lower contribution of trade within SAARC countries and others. The study further explores that reducing trade barriers and may lead to an increase in trade efficiency.
Keywords: Worldwide Trade, Pakistan’s Trade Efficiency, Exports, Imports.
10Analyses of Governance Indicators Affecting Flow of Foreign Aid: An ARDL Approach
KHAWAJA ASIF MEHMOOD, ALI AZAM and RABIA HAFEEZ
Pages: 266-275
Details (391)
One of the important components of foreign capital is foreign aid that helps to address macroeconomic issues of recipient country. Macroeconomic disorders such as poverty and unemployment are tackled through foreign aid. Need of time is to evaluated the factors that affect the flow of foreign aid. Data of study was gathered from 1980 to 2019. Findings of study confirmed negative relationship of control of corruption on foreign aid. Likewise, negative relationship was found with political stability and government effectiveness with foreign aid. As a policy implication, government is to focus on settling down internal unrest on account of such governance indictors. It is so to gain more benefit from the same to overcome macroeconomic disorders.
Keywords: Foreign Aid, Political Stability, Control of Corruption, Government Effectiveness.
11Networking and Collaboration for adoption of innovation and Sustainable Growth: Case Study Evidence from the Small and Medium Enterprises of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
MOHAMMAD DAUD ALI, SYED IMAD SHAH and MUHAMMAD ATIQUE RAFIQUE KHATTAK
Pages: 276-282
Details (370)
This research is aimed at unraveling the significance of Networking and Collaboration in Pharmaceuticals SMEs of Khyberpakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The research tried to answer the research problem/question as to whether there is some role of networking and collaboration in the sustainable growth of SMEs through adoption of innovation. The data was collected from eight Pharmaceutical SMEs across two clusters; the Peshawar Cluster and Nowshera clusters in Khyberpakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total of 20 interviews were conducted from the respondents where they served with open ended interview protocol once they assented through emails and Telephone. All the respondents/interviewees strongly adhered to the fact that networking and collaboration help in diffusion of innovation and growth of SMEs. Hence there is an enormous evidence of the impact of diffusion of innovation to make the SMEs sustainable and ensure their growth.
Keywords: Networking, Collaboration, Innovation Diffusion, Sustainability, SME Growth.
12Role of The Government Agencies in Implementing and Enforcing the Consumer Protection Laws
SOBIA BASHIR, FAISAL SHAHZAD KHAN and ABDUS SAMAD KHAN
Pages: 283-291
Details (224)
Consumer protection laws aim to protect consumers from fraudulent, deceptive, and unfair business practices. However, the effectiveness of these laws depends on their implementation and enforcement. This is where government agencies come into play. These agencies are responsible for enforcing consumer protection laws and holding businesses accountable for their actions. The role of government agencies in implementing and enforcing consumer protection laws is critical in ensuring that consumers are protected from harmful business practices. Government agencies investigate consumer complaints, develop regulations and guidelines, and collaborate with consumer advocacy groups and businesses to protect consumers. However, the effectiveness of government agencies in enforcing consumer protection laws may be limited by challenges such as limited resources, inadequate legal frameworks, and evolving technological and marketplace trends. Despite these challenges, government agencies have had success in enforcing consumer protection laws and imposing penalties on businesses that violate these laws. Overall, the role of government agencies in implementing and enforcing consumer protection laws is crucial in protecting consumers and ensuring that businesses operate fairly and transparently.
Keywords: Consumer, Consumer Protection Laws, Agencies, Legal Framework, Technology.

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