Year 2020 , Volume 9, Issue 3, Part 1 Year 2020 , Volume  9, Issue 3, Part 1
1Factors affecting Faculty Job Satisfaction and Leaders Influence in a Pakistani Public University
MUHAMMAD AMIN, FARRUKH MUNIR and SAMRA BASHIR
Pages: 1-12
Details (539)
This research focuses to explore the factors affecting the faculty members’ job satisfaction and the influence that the campus/division head has upon these factors in a Pakistani public university. To conduct the research qualitative method has been used. The selected public university has 13 campuses/divisions. Twenty-six faculty members, two from each campus/division, who had at least three years of working experience with the present head (leader) in the current campus/division have been interviewed. The semi-structured type of qualitative interview was adopted to generate comprehensive data. ‘Content analysis’ was employed to analyze the data. A range of factors was revealed from the data that were affecting the job satisfaction of faculty members. Six main themes have been developed and the identified factors are collated under these themes. The major themes include institutional factors, leader-related factors, colleague-related factors, student-related factors, personal factors, and job-related factors. The faculty job satisfaction factors related to the institution, leader, and job are influenced by the leader, whereas factors related to colleagues, students, and faculty themselves are not influenced by the leader. Some suggestions for the practice, policy, and future researchers are presented.
Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Leader’s Influence, Public University Context.
2An Overview of the Sustainable Development Plans of Hindurabi Island
AHMAD ABRISHAM CHI and ALI ASGHAR MOONESAN
Pages: 13-27
Details (370)
The main objective of this research is to provide a framework by which decision-makers can evaluate and compare alternatives for sustainable development planning under uncertain dynamic future considering the risk and uncertainty associated with human judgment as well as the uncertain future. This approach combines the Delphi method, fuzzy set theory, and a discrete multi-criteria method based on prospect theory (TODIM). TODIM (an acronym in Portuguese for iterative MCDM) method is a particular multi-criteria approach based on the prospect theory. A qualitative Delphi technique is used to identify a set of qualitative sustainability criteria and to rate the alternatives accordingly. The uncertainties and risks involved in information and judgment within the evaluation process are taken into account by using a hybrid approach called FTODIM (Fuzzy TODIM). The decision making model developed in this research examines three different techniques of aggregating the viewpoints of different decision-makers and explores how the aggregation technique affects the ranking of the alternatives. To demonstrate the potential application of the proposed approach, it is applied to the tourism development of Hendurabi Island in Persian Gulf, Iran for identifying the preferred plan among a set of alternative development plans. This research offers a novel development and application of the combined fuzzy MCDM and the Delphi approach to the Hendurabi Island’s sustainable development.
Keywords: Sustainable Development, Sustainability Criteria, Island-based Tourism, Delphi process, Fuzzy MCDM, Prospect Theory, FTODIM, Hendurabi Island, Persian Gulf.
3Examining the Effectiveness of Entry Mode Choice in Driving Small and Medium Enterprises International Performance from the Home-Host Country Dyads
IRIS S.Y. CHEN and YI-LONG JAW
Pages: 28-49
Details (414)
Though international entry mode choice largely depends on a firm’s resource base, host country governments make efforts to promote policy relaxation with incentives in order to attract more FDI inflow. Here, we establish a consolidated framework with the widely used theoretical perspectives of transaction cost economies (TCE), network theory, and institutional theory for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as a direct response to Laufs and Schwens (2014)’s call to examine the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of entry mode choice in driving their international performance. From home-host country dyads, our study is based on the statistical analysis of 242 surveys given to SMEs that have expanded from a single home country, Taiwan, into various host countries, such as China, Vietnam, Indonesia, Singapore, and India. Our results demonstrate that SMEs’ entry mode choice is favorably influenced by the degree of reinforcement of SMEs’ commitment to foreign market entry and further establish that the reduction of perceived uncertainty positively impacts international performance. We also found that while network capability was the essential determinant for SMEs’ entry mode choice, favorable change to the host institution does matter when SMEs choose greenfield as foreign market entry mode compared with other non-equity modes. Such change to the host institution will also trigger in specific context, such as for Taiwanese SMEs’ entry to India.
Keywords: Small and Medium Enterprises, Network Capability, Home-host Country Dyads, Entry Mode Choice, Performance.
4The Reality of Quality of Work Life and Its Effect on Organizational Commitment of Physicians and Nurses Working in the Ministry of Health in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
ATALLAH MOHAMMED TAYSER ALSHARAH
Pages: 50-69
Details (876)
This study tried to focus on a modern and important concept, that is quality of work life and its elements availability in a sector that is considered one of the most influential sectors in Saudi society, which is the health sector., The study attempted to link this concept with an issue that is considered one of the most important issues in health sector, which is job dropout and non-organizational commitment for physicians and nurses who are working in the Ministry. Therefore, the study aimed to find out the relationship between quality of work life available in hospitals and health centers and the extent of organizational commitment availability among physicians and nurses. Due to population large size, this study was limited to select a convenient sample from hospitals and health centers employees in Riyadh city. 500 questionnaires were distributed to hospitals employees, 418 questionnaires were recollected, so the response rate is (83.6%), All questionnaires were statistical analyzed, Therefore the study concluded, a set of results, the most important of which are: There is an appropriate level quality of work life dimensions in Ministry of Health in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which caused physicians and nurses feeling of job satisfaction and increase organizational commitment of. The study concluded that wages, reward, safety, job stability and physical work conditions are the most influential aspects in increasing organizational commitment. It was also found that there are some negatives in incentives, rewards, and annual increases provided to physicians and nurses, as well as physicians and nurses poor participation who are working for the ministry for long periods of time, providing means of security and protection from job hazards. The study recommended a set of recommendations, the most important of which are: Increasing interest in all aspects of quality of work life in this study, and granting more material and moral incentives to maintain physicians and nurses working for the Ministry for long periods And to reduce the great pressure on physicians and nurses and protect them from professional hazards and to place the right man in the right place in leadership positions in the ministry.
Keywords: Quality of Work Life, Organizational Commitment, Ministry of Health.
5Influence of the Tertiary Industry Development on the Urban-Rural Disparities and the Spillover Effect in China Based on the SARAR Spatial Econometric Models
YAN HAN, QIAO JUN and CAO CHEN
Pages: 70-79
Details (379)
Since the Reform and Opening up, China has made remarkable achievements on economic development, while at the same time, the imbalance and inadequacies between urban development and rural development are becoming increasingly significant, which has restricted people from stepping forward to a better life. From the perspective of the flow of urban and rural factors, based on theoretical analysis of the influence of the tertiary industry development on the urban-rural disparities and through the index analysis of the disparities, this paper finds that the disparities has certain regional dependence. Using SARAR spatial econometric models, based on an empirical analysis of the influence and the spillover effects of the tertiary industry development on the urban-rural disparities, the paper shows that the tertiary industry development has positive effects on the urban-rural disparities of both the local areas and other areas. In order to alleviate the current principal contradiction faced by Chinese society and fulfill people’s desire for a better life, we should pay more attention to promote the development of rural area.
Keywords: The Tertiary Industry, The Urban-rural Disparities, Spatial Econometric Models.
6Road to Women Empowerment in Cambodia; A Leadership and Education approach
AMNA YAMEEN, NIDA KAMAL and HINA SAMDANI
Pages: 80-87
Details (462)
Women empowerment is considered a complex and multidimensional phenomenon because it is heavily embedded in the context in which it is being practiced. The construct of empowerment can be viewed from the lens of a process (i.e. elements facilitating individual’s or group’s empowerment) and an outcome (i.e. empowered individuals or groups). The study is a qualitative analysis that explores empowerment through the lens of agency and opportunity structure. The present study has been conducted on students of Harpswell Foundation, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Harpswell Foundation is a residential facility that invests in female high school graduates by providing them access to higher education, housing, and leadership opportunities. Empirical results reveal that the processes and program components of the Harpswell Foundation create an enabling environment for young women which leads to the development of their personal skills, self-awareness, career planning, economic stability, and self-sustainability. The graduates of Harpswell Foundation play a significant role in creating a landscape for empowered women in Cambodia as most of these graduates, being the first generation of their family to attend university, are either self-employed, work at a top tier company or non-profit, have pursued higher education, and have created a significant difference in the economic conditions of their family.
Keywords: Women Empowerment, Leadership, Agency, Group Education, Civil Society.
7Impact of HR Practices on Employee Turnover and Job Satisfaction: Evidence from Unfavourable Context of Universities in KP Pakistan
ALI MUHAMMAD and SHAFIQ UR REHMAN
Pages: 88-104
Details (1079)
This research examines the impact of pertinent HR practices/policies upon a person’s job contentment and turnover in higher educational institutes. A special context of universities of KP is chosen where numerous employees have developed job dissatisfaction and increased turnover because of unfavorable work conditions including but not limited to terrorism attacks, civil unrest, widespread diseases and unconducive working environment. This has ultimately compelled them to leave their jobs and flee to other cities such as Islamabad and Karachi. More specifically, three HR policies i.e. employee participation, training and performance appraisal are analysed to affect job satisfaction and turnover. A quantitative survey was conducted to assess job outcomes of University teachers in areas where living conditions have deteriorated in the recent past. Respondents were segregated on the basis of age, income per month, designation and gender basis. The regression results suggest a positive significant relation of employee participation and performance appraisal with that of job satisfaction while a significant negative relation is found with turnover ratio. The study concludes that universities should focus on implementing HR policies and practices effectively in workplace which will help retain employees and keep them motivated. This can be one of the many effective strategies to retain workforce and discourage brain-drain out of the country. The study ends with a brief conclusion and while acknowledging limitations.
Keywords: HR Practices, Job satisfaction, Turnover, Performance Appraisal, Employee Participation.
8Determinants of Capital Structure: Evidence from Fuel and Energy Sector of Pakistan
NOOR AHMED MEMON, GHAZALA TUNIO and GHULAM MURTAZA SHAH
Pages: 105-114
Details (907)
The key motivation behind this study is to determine the capital structure of fuel and energy sector firms listed in Pakistan Stock Exchange. Data of 18 firms of this industry are analyzed during the period of 2006 to 2017.for this cross section fixed effect model of regression has been employed after the Hausman Test to see the impact of four independent variables such as growth, profitability size and tangibility of assets on leverage (dependent variable). Furthermore Descriptive statistics, correlation, unit root test are also used. The result showed that growth has significant positive association with leverage where as profitability; size and tangibility of assets have negative association with leverage. It is revealed in our study that firms of fuel and energy sectors of Pakistan financed 59.5% of their assets through debt and 40.5 % with equity. Huge growth and low profitability has been observed in this industry during the research tenure.
Keywords: Capital Structure, Pecking Order Theory, Fuel and Energy Sector, Pakistan Stock Exchange.
9The Role of Financial Openness in Triggering Bank Risk and Efficiency: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan
MUHAMMAD QASIM, IRFAN AZIZ and MUHAMMAD NAVEED
Pages: 115-129
Details (679)
The purpose of the study is to find out empirically the interrelation among three main variables financial openness, efficiency and risk of commercial banks working in Pakistan while controlling for other country-specific variables. The study has been conducted to investigate the potential direct impact of financial openness and risk on the profit efficiency of commercial banks and to further check that whether the efficiency of domestic commercial banks is indirectly affected by financial openness through a change in bank risk. The efficiency of all commercial banks is separately calculated and analysed to find out which bank is the most efficient and which has the lowest efficiency score. The dataset consists of 13 private commercial banks working in Pakistan, covering the period from 2008 – 2018. System GMM is used along with the Auto Regressive Distributive Lagged model to find out the prevailing impact of financial openness and bank risk on the profit efficiency of domestic commercial banks of Pakistan. Efficiency score is calculated through Stochastic Frontier Approach using Battese and Coelli (1995) model. The main finding of the study reveals that financial openness has a direct negative impact on the profit efficiency of domestic commercial banks working in Pakistan. Risk has no direct impact on profit efficiency, however, financial openness has a positive association with risk, hence it can increase risk by lowering the profit efficiency indirectly. Further found that overall commercial banks are 53% efficient and they can improve their profit efficiency by up to 47%, the existing slum in profit gains.
Keywords: Financial Openness, Efficiency, Z-Score, Bank Risk.
10The Sequential Mediating Effect of Training and Individual Performance in the Relationship between SAP and Desired Outcomes with Perceived Financial Performance: (A Study of Accountant General Office, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan)
AZHAR KHAN, SHAHID JAN KAKAKHAIL and HAMID ULLAH
Pages: 130-146
Details (378)
The main purpose of this research study was focused on the implementation of System Application Product (SAP) and accounting changes in the budgeting and accounting offices of Peshawar, Pakistan. In this connection, desired outcomes with perceived financial performance are selected as dependent variable, SAP as independent variable while training & individual performance are selected as mediating variables. Pure quantitative approach is employed, while data is collected through adopted questionnaire from 300 employees of Accounting General office Peshawar. The results of simple mediation shows that the relationship between SAP and individual performance is positively mediated by employees’ trainings. Moreover, the relationship of SAP and desired outcomes is also positively mediated by employees training. The results of sequential mediation analysis showed that the relationship between SAP and desired outcomes with perceived financial performance are sequentially mediated by trainings to employees and individual performance. Result shows that the initiation of SAP increases organizational orientation toward employees training that has improve individual performance, which significantly contribute towards the achievement of desired outcomes such as, (timeliness, completeness and accuracy of the financial statements) while including perceived financial performance like transparency in salaries, GP Fund and pension payments, accuracy in accounts information, delivery of financial management and audit functions, and customer satisfaction.
Keywords: System Application Product, Training, Individual Performance, Desired Outcomes, Perceived Financial Performance, AMOS.
11Quality Analytics Led Human Resource Management and Its Impact on Customer Satisfaction
IMRAN AHMAD RANA, MUHAMMAD ALI YAB and CH. ABDUL REHMAN
Pages: 147-156
Details (384)
The study was conducted to determine the mediating role of Quality Management Analytics (QMA) between selected Human Resource Management (HRM) and Customer satisfaction in service sector of Punjab, Pakistan. The purpose of quantitative study was to assess the association between HRM, QMA and Customer satisfaction in service sector organizations. Data was collected from 400 employees working in six selected cities of the Punjab province. This study provided the guidance to service sector organizations of Punjab to implement the quality management analytics led human resource management practices and know its impact on customer requirements service satisfaction. The study revealed that human resource management practices when coupled with quality management analytics support in enhancing satisfaction of customers. It was found that employees generally want to improve the quality of their services but limited analytics resources are available to instantly analyze and guide on issues wherever required. So, it was recommended to integrate quality management analytics practices with HRM cells to improve the quality of services on continual basis. The research study was limited to service sector organizations operating in selected cities of one province. Future studies should examine the status at other sectors in different regions of Pakistan. The sample size should be increased as well so we can generalize the findings across the Pakistan.
Keywords: HRM, Quality Management, Analytics, Customer Satisfaction.

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