Year 2019 , Volume  8, Issue 3, Part 1
1The Balanced Scorecard as a Measure for Performance of Banks in Lebanon: A Review of Literature
Pages: 254-271
Details (1157)
The Lebanese Banking Sector performs a vital role in the economic development of the country. Currently, Lebanese banks are engaged in a wide range of activities, offering variety of financial products and services to resident and non-resident customers. In addition to the distinguished products offered to the business sector, Lebanese banks have also entered the retail market by offering a wide range of products to the household sector. Managing such a portfolio of products and services needs high efforts and comprehensive data analysis to get high customer satisfaction and loyalty. To face competition, especially from MENA banks, Lebanese banks are in a continual need to design new products, upgrade technology and infrastructure, improve employees’ skills and know-how, and improve relations with customers The more the sound the banking system, the more will be the healthy economy. Lebanese banks are still measuring and evaluating the performance of their business using only financial measures. Till our days, the idea of introducing non-financial measures and/or performance management systems to measure the performance of banks is still away from the strategies of Lebanese bankers. Moreover, the review of literature showed no evidence related to the evaluation of Lebanese banks using both financial and nonfinancial measures, mainly performance management system as the Balanced Scorecard. Accordingly, it is highly recommended encouraging banks to adopt the Balanced Scorecard as a complementary tool to measure performance, knowing that Lebanese banks are anticipated to face a new era of challenges due to the extraction of gas resources, the expected reconstruction process of Syria, and the development of the banking sectors in the Arab Gulf Area.
Keywords: Banking Sector, Balanced Scorecard, Financial and Non-Financial Measures, Customers’ Loyalty, Performance Measurement Systems, Evaluation of Banks.
2An Application on the Relationship between Postmodern Organization Approach and Employee Innovation: Kirikkale Municipality Case
Pages: 272-281
Details (915)
Innovation in an organization is the most important determinant of successful performance and long-term survival. This study aims to reveal the relationship between postmodern organizational approach and employee innovation. A questionnaire technique was used in this study on 130 employees in Kırıkkale Municipality. The data obtained were analyzed through SPSS (Statistical Program for Social Sciences) package program. Correlation analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between postmodern organizational approach and employee innovation. According to the findings, there was a significant relationship between postmodern organizational approach and employee innovation. However, it was found that there is a negative relationship between gender, postmodern organization approach, and the effect on employee innovations. It is determined that there is a very weak and negative relationship between the place of residence, postmodern organization approach and the effect on the innovation of employees. It found that there was a very weak relationship between the working year, postmodern organizational approach and its impact on employee innovation. In addition, chi-square and Kruskal-wallis tests were performed.
Keywords: Modernism, Postmodern Organization Approach, İnnovation, Production İnnovation, Process İnnovation, Municipality of Kırıkkale.
3Whither Goes the DJIA? The Problem of the Divisor Over Time and the Need to Change the Calculation of the Index.
Pages: 282-287
Details (499)
The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) is arguably the world’s most widely watch stock market index. It is calculated as a simple unweighted arithmetic mean or average. Previous papers noted several flaws with the calculation which limits its usefulness as an overall or broad market gauge. Those flaws include its small sample size and it use of the summed market prices, not the summed market values of the component stocks. There is also the problem of the necessity to revise the divisor whenever stock dividends and splits occur. This brief paper will examine the “divisor problem” in far more detail than the earlier papers. The paper will first review the calculation of the average and briefly review prior discussed flaws. It will then explore the large number of divisor revisions during the period 1926, when the current calculation was constructed, through 2018. These changes have been the result of numerous stock splits and stock dividends over time. The direct result of all these divisor changes has been the steady and persistent decline in the meaning of a point change. It will be argued that, sooner or later, the calculation of the Dow may have to be changed.
Keywords: Stock Market Averages, Dow Jones Industrial Average, Statistical Problems.
4Gender Equality for Lao Women: Mining Communitys Perspective
Pages: 288-294
Details (442)
It is evident that women are largely excluded from sharing of the economic benefits from international mining industry. The gendered impacts of mining industry on women, therefore, is critical. In this paper, the researcher investigates the impact of mining companies on gender equality through the perceptions and life experiences of female workers, members of the community, and their family in a mining community in Lao PDR. Through the analysis of the community perspectives, the study shows that CSR and other economic programs on women employment, social roles, and health promotion can influence the likelihood of sustainable development likelihood by mining companies. The main obstacle for the promotion of gender equality remains work conditions and expected gender roles in the community.
Keywords: Gender, Women and Work, CSR, Sustainable Development.
5Differences in Perceived Risk between Apparel Buyers and Non-buyers in Online Context
Pages: 295-301
Details (535)
Drawing on marketing and psychometric paradigms, the purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in risk perception in online shopping between apparel and non-apparel internet buyers among Saudi consumers. A web-based survey was conducted to measure consumers’ perception of the six types of risk associated with both, apparel and non-apparel online shopping. Three hundred and nineteen responses were collected. Results showed significant differences in two risk dimensions between apparel internet buyers and non-apparel or (other products) buyers. Specifically, psychological and privacy risks are perceived higher for non-apparel buyers. Moreover, non-apparel internet buyers have higher aggregate degree of perceived risk towards apparel internet shopping.
Keywords: Consumer Behavior, Apparel, Risk Dimensions, Internet Shopping, Risk Perception.
6The Impact of Social Marketing Activities on Citizens Attitudes Applied to the Vision of Saudi Arabia 2030
Pages: 302-315
Details (530)
The objective of the research is to identify the extent to which Saudi citizens understand the social marketing activities of KSA within the 2030 Vision and its impact on their attitudes. It explores also the impact of the demographic factors on the attitudes of the Saudi citizens within the scope of the KSA 2030 Vision. 200 sheets constituting the sample of the research have been analyzed. To achieve the objectives of the research, the researcher prepared a survey questionnaire which includes in its final shape (31) items. The validity of the questionnaire was tested by a committee of specialists. Also, the reliability of the questionnaire was tested using (Cronbach-Alpha) coefficient. The researcher used the statistical methods of arithmetical averages, standard deviations, and the ordinal importance of all the research variables and the components of each variable through the program (SPSS). The results of the research show that the social marketing activities of the KSA within the 2030 Vision have contributed to the influence of the citizens' attitudes on the vocabulary of the research sample, and that there is a difference in the attitudes of citizens about the KSA 2030 Vision in terms of demographic variables (age, income, educational levels). The research did not prove the difference in citizens' attitudes towards the KSA 2030 Vision in terms of (gender).
Keywords: Social Marketing, KSA 2030 Vision, Attitudes.
7Passengers Satisfaction Toward Oman Air Services
Pages: 316-331
Details (878)
The quality of service is important determinant to evaluate whether the customer satisfaction or not. The purpose of this survey is to identify the Oman Air Passenger perception toward Oman Air Service, and to examine the effect of Oman Air services and passenger’s satisfaction. The population of the study was the people who have took Oman Air flight at Airport of Salalah, Oman. Convenience sampling was used in this survey in distributing questionnaires to passenger aircraft at Salalah airport, Oman. Finding show that 57.5% of the variation in satisfaction of Oman Air passengers was influenced by three dimensions of Oman Air services, namely Customer Service before flight, Customer Service during flight, Customer Service after flight. The finding also shows that Oman Air Passengers both male and female passengers have the similar level of satisfaction with the three dimension services (Customer Service before flight, Customer Service during flight, Customer Service after flight) provided by Oman Air.
Keywords: Customer Satisfaction, Services Quality, Customer Service Before Flight, Customer Service During Flight, Customer Service After Flight.
8Effects of Economic Globalization on Environment
Pages: 332-342
Details (544)
Competition of countries for the sake of growth and development has caused to depletion of natural resources without any planning. With the economic development and mostly globalization, environmental degradation has exceeded the national borders. Many countries perceived that globalization would open a window to have access to more capital flows, technology, cheaper imports, and larger export markets. But these countries did not have any idea that the benefits of increased efficiency will not go to all countries equally. In this paper, the effects of globalization on the environment and sustainability are analyzed by considering its economic costs in different types of environmental degradation. And then, discussion is provided how the negative impacts can be minimized and the positive impacts can be maximized with presenting the theory of Environmental Kuznets Curve. However, it is noticed that the aim is not to reduce pollution damages to zero but reduce them to socially optimal levels. This optimal level is obtained where the marginal social benefit of the decreasing of the pollution equals the marginal social costs of the efforts to reduce pollution.
Keywords: Globalization, Environment, Degradation, Growth, Development.
9Neoclassical versus Neoricardian Schools on Wage Determination
Pages: 343-353
Details (480)
In this paper, theories of the Neoclassical School and the Neoricardian schools were stated and compared about the wage determination and distribution: the Marginal Productivity Theory and the Sraffa System. The Neoclassical theory was examined firstly; its evolution, main characteristics and what results we will face with when we relax its central assumptions. Then, the Neoricardian theory was examined; its relations with Ricardo and Marx, its critiques about the marginal productivity theory and the themes of the system. The main difference between Sraffa and Neoclassics was found as the marginal productivity theory uses the marginal products and prices as data in order to determine the wages and profits, but in the Sraffa system, with the help of the physical conditions of production, one of the unknown from the profit rate, wage and prices is sufficient to determine all of the others simultaneously. In addition, in the Sraffa system, a commodity can be both a factor of production and output whereas in the marginal productivity theory production process has only one way direction.
Keywords: Marginal Productivity Theory, Sraffa, Wage Distribution, Neocalassical School, Neoricardian School.
10The Balanced Scorecard Management of New Paradigm Agriculture in Tumbon Sankrang, Sankampang District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.
Pages: 354-363
Details (474)
This research tittle "The Balanced Scorecard Management of New Paradigm Agriculture in Tumbon Sankrang, Sankampang District, Chiang Mai Province" is qualitative research. The purpose of this study is to survey the implementation of agriculture the group, develop the balanced scorecard concept and also to evaluate this paradigm into practice by using par-study method between both the researcher and agriculture members. Data was collected by focusing this member and also target market using a balanced scorecard process. This research result was a benefit for group implements follow by the balanced scorecard concept including financial perspective, customer perspective, internal process perspective and learning and growth perspective. This result provided the group implement composed the strategy analysis, setting their missions, vision, and management. This agriculture aimed 2 projects and 2 activities which they able to implements. The researcher proposed suggestion that this group should be managing their group rely on the continuity of the accounting system and financial system or set the fundraising for their group and also developing product packaging which suitable for the new target customer, improve marketing channel by using social network marketing strategy. Moreover, the Sankrang Municipality should use more networking channels and support.
Keywords: Balanced Scorecard, Management, New Paradigm Agriculture, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.