Year 2017 , Volume  6, Issue 4, Part 2
1A Dynamic Global Integration and Local Responsiveness Framework: Understanding Strategic Movements of Multinational Enterprises
Pages: 1394-1426
Details (4316)
The aim of this paper is to further the understanding of the interactive relationships between environmental dynamics and the strategic development of multinational enterprises. A dynamic perspective on the global-integration and local-responsiveness (IR) framework is introduced and a dynamic IR framework proposed. Our analysis follows the logic of content analysis with a multiple-case study methodology. There are 25 cases collected from public case banks such as the Harvard Business School, the Asia Case Research Center and the IBS Center for Management Research, etc. Eight types of strategic movements and the pattern of environmental forces are identified and discussed. Our empirical evidence shows that the strategic development of most MNEs is determined by the environmental forces. We suggest that our dynamic IR framework presents an expanded and advanced work as a guide for MNEs to foretell and conduct proper strategic movements to compete against environmental opportunities and threats. Key Words: Dynamic View, Global-Integration and Local-Responsiveness Framework, International Business, Strategic Change, Content Analysis.
2A Study of Affective, Continuance and Normative Commitments and its Impact on Job Satisfaction among the Faculty Members of Technical Universities
Pages: 1427-1438
Details (6080)
Affective commitment is an individual‟s emotional attachment to the organization. Normative commitment reflects individual‟s sense of moral obligation to remain with the organization. On the other hand, continuance commitment is based on the individual‟s recognition of costs associated with leaving the organization. Affective commitment is considered more effective measure of organizational commitment since it indirectly influences the other two dimensions of organizational commitment. Job satisfaction is defined as "the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs. The present research was conducted on 341 faculty members of technical universities using purposive random techniques with the help of psychometric questionnaires with the objective to find out the level of affective, continuance and normative commitment as well as job satisfaction among them. The study reveals that the faculty members of Technical University .has shown moderate level of affective and continuance commitment and high level of normative commitment. Job satisfactions among the faculty members were also found to be moderately high. Organizational commitment and job satisfaction have been found at moderate level in Ph.D. and Non Ph.D. degree holder faculty members. Job satisfaction is found positively correlated with continuance commitment only and none other significant relationship has been observed in both the groups. Faculty members of both the government as well as private university have moderate level of organizational commitment. Government university‟ faculty members have shown low level of job satisfaction than their private university faculty members‟ counterparts who have shown high level of job satisfaction. Organizational commitment and job satisfaction are also reported at moderate level between male and female faculty members Technical University. Key Words: Affective Commitment, Normative Commitments, Continuance Commitment, Job Satisfaction, Technical University, Organizational Commitment.
3A Study of Workplace Stress amongst Managers and Administrators in Adoption of Green Environmental Initiatives at Malaysian Industrial Companies
Pages: 1439-1452
Details (641)
The purpose of this study is to identify the workplace stress among managers and administrators in the adoption of green environmental initiatives at the workplace. The respondents of the study consist of 65 managers at middle and higher levels and 45 administrators at Bandar Baru Bangi Industrial Area, Selangor State, Malaysia. The findings of this research show that the work pressures amongst managers and administrators are just moderate with mean value of 2.77. The attitudes towards work is also at a moderate agree level with mean value of 3.19 and the overall score of mean value for profiles of workaholics is 3.74 that means the managers and administrators agree that they are the workaholics in the workplace and in fulfilling the work of green environmental initiatives. The results of symptom on works stress shows that the constant worrying contributes to the highest percentage with 65% for the thought or reasoning symptoms. The physical symptoms shows aches and pains providing the highest score with 68%, moodiness and instability or short temper like yelling and shouting consists of 77% under the emotional symptoms. Lastly, the behavioral symptoms of eating more or less shows the highest percentage with 56%. On overall, workplace stress amongst managers and administrators are moderately and they are still under control. Key Words: Work Pressure, Attitudes toward Work, Profiles of Workaholics, Symptoms of Workplace Stress.
4Disclosure of Fair Value Measurement Techniques of Financial Instruments-Study Applied to the Portuguese Banking Sector According to IFRS 7
Pages: 1453-1468
Details (746)
The last financial crisis raised a lot of criticism toward fair value measurement and, consequently, the IASB defined in IFRS 7 “Financial Instruments: Disclosures" and IFRS 13 "Fair Value Measurement", the set of disclosures that a company must make regarding the fair value measurement techniques used. The fair value hierarchy concept, introduced in IFRS 7 in 2009, classifies the data used in the measurement according to three levels, of which two levels introduce some subjectivity in the measurement. Hence, this research aims to study the disclosure of fair value measurement techniques of the financial instruments of companies operating in the banking sector in Portugal from 2013 to 2015. Its purpose is to understand whether those financial instruments duly applied the accounting standards that define the required disclosures and analyse the fair value measurement techniques used for financial instruments. The results of the study allow us to conclude that companies operating in the banking sector in Portugal have generally disclosed information on fair value measurement techniques of the financial instruments required by IFRS 7, with the exception of disclosures related to the description of valuation techniques applied for the determination of the fair value of financial assets and liabilities and the reconciliation of changes in the fair value of financial instruments classified at level 3 of the fair value hierarchy. It was also concluded that most financial instruments measured at fair value are classified at level 2 of the fair value hierarchy, which limits the degree of certainty about their values. Key Words: Banking Industry, Fair Value, Fair Value Hierarchy, Financial Instruments.
5The Effect of Foreign Portfolio Investment (FPI) on Capital Market Indices (Evidence from Amman Stock Exchange)
Pages: 1469-1477
Details (4218)
This research aimed at showing the effect of foreign portfolio investment (FPI), both in buying of shares or sale of shares by foreign investors, inflation and gross domestic product on the market capitalization in the Amman Stock Exchange for the period 2005-2016. The financial data were collected through the official website of the Amman Stock Exchange and the reports issued by the Central Bank of Jordan. To achieve the purpose of the study, the financial data were analyzed utilizing statistical methods offered by SPSS package. The study concluded that there is a statistically significant effect on both the purchases and sales by foreign investors on market capitalization. The study also found no statistically significant effect between inflation and market capitalization. Key Words: FPI, Portfolio, Investment, Amman Stock Exchange.
6Perceived Leadership Communication Predicting Dimensions of Organizational Commitment among International and Local Airline Service Employees (KLM and AERO) in Nigeria
Pages: 1478-1487
Details (1204)
This study investigates Perceived Leadership Communication (PLC) as a predictor of organizational commitment and as correlate of the sub-factors of organizational commitment. PLC is a new area in leadership communication and its relationship to organizational commitment has not yet been studied. 300 local and international airline employees from a sample of AERO and KLM airline service employees in Lagos were surveyed. Data were collected using Perceived Leadership Communication Questionnaire (PLCQ) and Organizational Commitment Scale (OCS). Linear regression analysis was run to predict Organizational Commitment from Perceived Leadership Communication of the airline employees. Results show that Perceived Leadership Communication predicted Organizational Commitment F (1,298) = 152.03, R= 0.581, R2 =.336 (β = -.501, t = -11.987, P<.05) and accounts for 33.6% of the total variation in organizational commitment. Other hypothesis were analyzed, reported and discussed in line with existing literature. It is concluded that level of Organizational Commitment is high when Perceived Leadership Communication is high also. KLM employees were found to experience higher organizational commitment than AERO employees. Key Words: Leadership, Perceived Leadership Communication, Organizational Commitment, Airline Employees.
7How Celebrity Endorsement in Online Advertisement Influence Consumers Perception of Different Genders
Pages: 1488-1502
Details (2067)
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender influence the perceptions of customers towards online advertisement using celebrity endorsers. This study will also studies the determinant factors that influence the perception of customers towards online advertisement using celebrity endorsers. Lastly this paper will study about the effect of online advertisement using celebrity endorsers to marketers. Questionnaires were distributed to 404 Malaysian respondents using various survey methods. Data collected is reliable for analysis and further studies. Analysis performed using descriptive and regression approaches. The study results suggested that based on the descriptive analysis, in overall for all questions asked, female respondents produced higher preference results compared with their male counterparts. In general, respondents first will look for endorsers who are trustworthy, followed with their appearance. Their expertise is the last factor that they are referring to. The study also suggested that for online product sales, endorser do not have large influence towards the consumers’ decisions and intentions to purchase online products in Malaysia. From the regression analysis results, the study shows that both male and female respondents produced similar highest correlating attributes. It is hoped that the results of this study can help to enrich the current vocabulary of marketing studies, especially in terms of the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement in one company’s marketing strategy and promotion. Key Words: Gender, Internet Shopping, Malaysia, Endorsement, Advertising, Marketing.
8Environmental Mitigation Scenarios of GHGs Emissions: Analysis for Saudi Arabia
Pages: 1503-1517
Details (622)
This paper evaluates the efficiency of environmental reduction policies in terms of their impact on the Saudi economy and environmental quality. It explores the future trends of environmental pollution in Saudi Arabia, through analysis efficiency of the environmental mitigation policies. This is done by employing mitigation scenarios for two models: CO2 model and other GHG model. Firstly, the VECM approach is employed to estimate the relationship between economic growth and GHGs emissions from 1981-2010, and then the mitigation scenarios including business as usual scenario examine the future trends of this relationship over the period of 2011-2030 in Saudi Arabia. The results of the two models showed that cuts to CO2 emissions and other GHG emissions by 5% and 0.05% will decrease the GDP of Saudi Arabia. However, Saudi Arabian policymakers have to choose appropriate environmental reduction policies to avoid the impacts of these policies on GDP and focus on adopting smart growth to draw appropriate future plans that could support the country to reach sustainable development. Key Words: VECM, Environmental Policies, Mitigation Scenarios, CO2 Emissions; Other GHGS Emissions.
9Reforming Saudi Arabias Energy Policy by Developing the Solar Industry for Residence and EVs: A System Dynamics Approach
Pages: 1518-1527
Details (784)
This paper analyzes the benefits of installing solar photovoltaics (PV) for both residences and electric vehicles (EVs) on a nationwide scale to support the energy initiatives of Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030. In a different study, the author projects the impact of developing the residential PV industry only. However, this paper emphasizes the additional impact of meeting EV energy consumption needs. In 2016, Saudi Arabia possessed 19 million vehicles; of that total, only 34 thousand were registered hybrid cars and EVs. By 2030, the kingdom will possess 26 million vehicles, or 19 million vehicles if considering the completion of four main cities’ metro projects. The transition from 19 million motor vehicles (MVs) to EVs with electric stations is more achievable when considering the execution of the metro projects. Through a system dynamics (SD) simulation, the results show that the elimination of MVs will reduce carbon dioxide by 127 million metric tons, saving 771 million barrels of oil and creating 143 thousand jobs. Additionally, considering the different scenarios of oil prices throughout the simulated years, gross domestic product (GDP) increases by $170.6, $231.3, and $343.9 billion for the low price (LP), medium price (MP), and high price (HP) scenarios, respectively. The development of both projects, the residential and EV station PVs, results in a GDP of $1388.7, $1490, and $1708.2 billion in the year 2030 for LP, MP, and HP, respectively. Key Words: Policy Reform, System Dynamics, Gasoline, Solar Energy, EV, Saudi Arabia, Oil.
10Cross National Study for Potential Consumers Expected Quality Attributes of Smart Home Products
Pages: 1528-1538
Details (635)
Predicting potential consumers’ expected quality attributes is essential for any business to know the level of their customer expectations in order to set and improve the products and service based on customer need. The purpose of this study is to research on the factors that affect the expectation of customers for quality from a smart-home products. The data had been collected from 450 people of the students in Taiwan and Thailand and analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and Multiple linear regression in Statistica 10. The results indicate that the differences of nationality and age lead to the different results of customer expectation in quality of smart home products. This results will provide useful guidelines for planning and setting future strategies for improving business plans of Smart home products to fit customers’ demands. Key Words: Smart Home, Service Quality, Customer Behavior.
11Methodology In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit: The Model of Fund Management of the Church
Pages: 1539-1542
Details (571)
This research belongs to qualitative study that explains the prayer-based methodology In the name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit in the management of the Church's fund. This achievement is a concrete manifestation in the socio-economic life of the Church in the care of God's love. The research data was obtained through in-depth interviews. The results show that the prayer-based Methodology In the name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit are the principles of the people's personal nobility, welfare, solidarity and the principle of social justice. Key Words: Accountability of Social Spirituality, Management, and Fund of the Church.
12An investigation of Academic and Social integration in Private Higher Education Institution in Malaysia as a Moderating Variable in Relations to Satisfaction Toward Students Retention.
Pages: 1543-1560
Details (993)
Satisfaction is an antecedent to retention and students’ retention is moderated by academic and social integration in private higher education institution in Malaysia. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between service delivery dimension that moderates satisfaction towards retention. The variable used in this study is academic and social integration as moderator between the variables of satisfaction and retention among undergraduate students’ from Malaysian private higher education institutions. To accomplish the objectives proposed with hypotheses, a model reflecting the relationship between service delivery dimension of academic and social integration and satisfaction with retention is applied. The model is tested with pearson product-moment correlation, linear regression and PROCESS Procedure for moderating effect. This empirical study focused with probability stratified random sampling with final sample size of 309 students. In theoretical concentration, this study achieved statistically significant positive results by emphasizing academic and social integration as an important moderating variable to achieve students’ retention by linking Perceived Performance Theory and Tinto’s Interactionist Theory from satisfaction to retention. Keywords: Service Delivery Quality Dimensions, Students’ Satisfaction, Students’ Retention, Perceived Performance, Academic and Social Integration.
13The Face of Extreme Poverty: Suburban Slums Survey
Pages: 1561-1571
Details (607)
The objective of the study was to portray the face of local community-level extreme poverty instead of giving poverty statistics or analyzing national and international poverty statistical data. The area chosen was the households from the extremely poor segments of Peshawar, Pakistan with a sample size of 294 respondents. The sample respondents were workers, pushcart based sellers and daily wage earners but not beggars. A scorecard methodology was used to identify the extreme poverty conditions, and describe their living conditions ranging from hunger to poor health, poor living and education conditions. The findings highlight the intensity of deprivation and provide evidence of the peculiar features of extreme poverty in the sample. More than 90% of the sample was living on less than the 2015 based poverty line of Rs 131 per capita equivalent to US$ 1.25 per capita. In creating awareness about it, the study aspires to elicit civil society’s response to such an extreme level of poverty where hunger and malnutrition runs high considering average basic food prices. Keywords: Poverty, Extremely Poor, Scorecard, Survey.
14Business Opportunity Development by Young Entrepreneurs: A Sensemaking Perspective
Pages: 1572-1582
Details (693)
This paper focuses on investigating business opportunity development by young entrepreneurs through the perspective of entrepreneurial sensemaking. Following a cognitive mechanism approach we find out how young entrepreneurs provide meaning to various cues derived from countless continuous events in their lives, interpret these cues and take various business decisions as per their interpretations of these cues and events. The cues and events can be cognitively conceptualized as drivers and barriers through which the entrepreneurs engage in sensemaking of their enterprises and the opportunities and limitations they may manifest. Using a narrative case study approach this paper relies on inductive reasoning of twenty young respondents including twelve male and eight female entrepreneurs in the early stages of setting up their enterprises. As a result of extensive qualitative data analysis, a three-tiered and six-dimensional framework of entrepreneurial sensemaking has been developed. The cognitive mechanisms employed by the entrepreneurs were presented in the form of cues, events and their interpretations resulting in a unique perspective on sensemaking. Even though the use of sensemaking in entrepreneurship research has been well-recognized there is a general lack of empirical work on how entrepreneurs use socially situated cognitive mechanisms to offer a clear and meaningful understanding of their new enterprise to relevant stakeholders and others within a social context. Keywords: Business Opportunity Development; Entrepreneurial Sensemaking; Sensemaking; Cognitive Mechanisms.
15Issues in The Use of Ijara as Islamic Mode of Financing
Pages: 1583-1592
Details (2954)
This paper attempts to examine issues in the current use of Ijara/leasing as an Islamic mode of financing based on the model agreements/documents used by Islamic banks for Ijara financing. The model agreements are selected as a fundamental source of information owing to the terms and conditions that define the basis of relationship between the bank as lessor and the customer as lessee. Precisely, the practical application of Ijara/leasing is based on these agreements. Primarily a qualitative research, exploratory in nature, was undertaken to explore the application of Ijara by Islamic banks in Pakistan. Data were collected in form of model agreements/documents from the website of State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) and two Islamic banks. Qualitative content analysis was applied to analyze the model agreements using an inductive approach in order to identify problems/issues in the use of Ijara by Islamic banks. Six major problems/discrepancies (issues) were identified in the current use of Ijara. However, these issues have been highlighted for more clarification through further research that may obtain more knowledgeable opinion of Shari’ah scholars regarding these problems (issues) in the application of Ijara. Keywords: Ijara, Islamic Banks, Agreements, Lessor, Lessee.