Year 2016 , Volume  5, Issue 3, Part 1
1Does Government Ownership Negatively Affect Soundness of Banks? New Evidence
Pages: 743-765
Details (1176)
Some research has concluded that government ownership of banks negatively affects their soundness. Bretton Wood institutions have used these conclusions to advocate for state-owned banks privatization. This paper shows that this research was weak in the way it controlled for fundamental determinants of soundness of banks, and lacked rigorous econometric analysis. With data covering 2001-2009 we showed that if there is any relationship between government ownership of banks and their subsequent soundness, it is positive. These results are robust to various measures of financial development, institutional quality and econometric approaches. Key Words: Government Ownership, Banks, Financial Development, Quality of Institutions, Financial Liberalisation.
2Impact of Organizational Position, Pay Structure, and Length of Employment on Employee Inclination to Participate in the Decision Making Programs in Educational Sector of Pakistan
Pages: 766-776
Details (1131)
This study describes the employee’s inclination to participate in the decision making programs in educational sector of Pakistan. In this paper the participation of middle and primary and school’s teachers was studied. It is necessary for success of the organization to attract and maintain the effective participation of the employees. This quantitative research provide important guidelines for the educational sector to improve the degree of participation of primary and middle school teachers in decision making programs. Many variables affect the employees inclination to participate in decision making programs, these variables includes length of employment, organizational position, and the pay structure. These variables have positive relationship with the employee participation. This study use the descriptive research style and quantitative were used to analyse the data. A structured questionnaire was distributed among the primary and middle school teachers of government sector and the data was collected from 106 respondents. The data was analysed through using the SPSS software, and the results shows positive relationship between the pay structure and the employee participation. Key Words: Length of Employment, Organizational Position, Pay Structure, Employee Participation.
3Impact of Sponsorship on Consumer Purchase Intention, Brand Image and Brand Publicity: A Marketer Perspective in Manufacturing Sector of Pakistan
Pages: 777-789
Details (3101)
The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between sports sponsorship, purchase intention, brand image and brand publicity. Data was collected through questionnaire on five point Likert scale from 100 respondents by using convenience sampling techniques. Data is collected from those people who are engaged in manufacturing of product and also from customer who actually purchase this. This study is conducted with reference of Pakistan. Correlation and regression analysis were used as statistical test. Through regression analysis it was found that purchase intention and brand image has strong positive relationship with sponsorship while brand publicity has a weak negative relationship with sponsorship. The correlation found that the significant relationship among purchase intention, brand image, and sponsorship whereas brand publicity has no positive relationship so it is recommended for future research gap. The Cronbach alpha reliability is 0.654 and this finding is perfect according to standards. SPSS version-20 is used for data analysis. Key Words: Sponsorship, Brand Image, Publicity, Purchase Intention.
4The Impact of Packaging, Price and Brand Awareness on Brand Loyalty: A Reseller Perspective in Mobile Sector of Pakistan
Pages: 790-807
Details (1795)
The aim of study is to examine the relationship between the packaging, price, brand awareness and brand loyalty. Data was collected through questionnaire on five point Likert scale from 212 respondents by using convenience sampling technique. Data is collected from customers who purchase various types of mobile brands. This study is conducted with the reference of Pakistan. Correlation and regression analysis were used as statistical tests. Through regression analysis it was found that packaging and brand awareness had strong positive significant relationship with brand loyalty whereas price had weak relationship with brand loyalty. The correlation analysis found that the significant relationship between the packaging, price, brand aware awareness and brand loyalty. The Cronbach alpha reliability is 0.723, it concludes that product attributes have positive relationship with brand loyalty. SPSS version 16 is used for data analysis and End-Note version six is use for citations and references. Key Words: Packaging, Price, Brand Awareness, Brand Loyalty, Mobile Sector, Reseller, Pakistan.
5Impact of a Brand Equity on Consumer Purchase Decision in L Oreal Skincare Products
Pages: 808-816
Details (7439)
The primary goal of a company is to build and maintain the proper position of a particular brand in the consumers’ minds to influence his purchase decision. Brand equity plays an important role in to boost up the performance of a company or any business. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of brand equity on consumer purchase intention in students of university of education Lahore, Okara campus. This study is quantitative in nature. For this purpose 100 questionnaires were distributed among the students by using probability sampling technique. Further analysis tools are regression and correlation to determine the relationship between independent and dependent variables. The results gathered were analyzed through SPSS software to get meaningful results. The results shows that brand equity influence purchase decision. Key Words: Brand Awareness, Perceived quality, Brand Association, Brand Loyalty, Purchase Decision.
6The Impact of Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Programs on Customers Loyalty
Pages: 817-826
Details (1931)
Now a days customers are the way to get success in an organization. Satisfying the customer is ultimate goal for every organization. . All top financial institution are trying to fulfill the demands and needs of customers. The same rule for success is also applied in banking sector. This research is conducted to study the impact of service quality, customer satisfaction, loyalty programs on customer’s loyalty. A survey is conducted through questionnaire. Data is collected from 100 customers having bank accounts in Habib Bank Limited. SPSS was used to analyze the data. This research shows that service quality, customer satisfaction, loyalty programs have positive impact on customer loyalty so bank should have introduce more loyalty programs to their loyal customers to satisfy them and also provide them best service quality to retain them. Key Words: Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction, Loyalty Program, Customer Loyalty.
7The Role of Islamic Work Ethic, Spiritual Leadership and Organizational Culture Toward Attitude on Change With Organizational Commitment and Job Involvement as Mediator on Bank Pembiayaan Rakyat Syariah(BPRS) Indonesia
Pages: 827-843
Details (1910)
The aim of the study to reveal the effect of the implementation of Islamic work ethic, organizational culture, and spiritual leadership simultaneously toward employee’s attitude to face changes in organization through strengthening on organizational commitment and job involvement as stimuli. Population of this research is 155 BPRS directors in Indonesia. Data is collected by sending questionnaires to respondents by post and interview with some of the directors in Central Java through convenience sampling method. Analysis technique used is Structural Eqaution Modelling (SEM) with VPLS software. The result of this study shows that there is a direct relationship between Islamic work ethic and job involvement, between Islamic work ethic, organizational culture, spiritual leadership and organizational commitment, between job involvement and attitude toward changes in cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions, and between organizational commitment and attitude toward changes in affective dimension. New finding in this study is Islamic work ethic indirectly affects attitude toward changes, organizational commitment influencing the attitude toward changes in affective dimension only, job involvement affects attitude toward changes in all dimensions (cognitive, affective, and behavioral), so that job involvement stripe needs to sprout up the attitude toward changes in organization. The implications are, management needs to develop Islamic work ethic to increase job involvement so that can raise the attitude toward changes in all dimensions (cognitive, affective, behavioral), and management has to develop Islamic work ethic, spiritual leadership and organizational leadership to increase organizational commitment, so that can raise the attitude toward changes even though it is only in affective dimension. Key Words: Islamic Work Ethic, Organizational culture, Spiritual Leadership, Job Involvement, Organizational Commitment, Attitude toward Changes.
8Factors Influencing the Perception of Customers in Islamic Banking: A Case Study in Pakistan
Pages: 844-859
Details (3310)
The Islamic banking system was start in 1963 in Malaysia. But this banking system not success due to certain factors like awareness regarding Islamic banking system. Than new Islamic bank Dubi Islamic bank was established in approximately 100 bank are operate without interest. But the market share of Islamic bank as compared to conventional bank is low. The reasons of this research is to check the impact of religion ,awareness regarding financial teaching of Islam, awareness regarding IB product and service ,advertising, reputation , networking on the perception of customers in Islamic banking system in Pakistan. For this purpose survey is used which consist of 150 Muslims respondent in different Islamic bank in Pakistan. Result of this study indicates that there is a significant perception criterion regarding Islamic banking. The most important factors which effect on the perception of customers in Islamic banking are religion, awareness regarding financial teaching of Islam, awareness regarding IB product and service, advertising, networking. The data is analyzed by using SPSS software version 16.0. Mostly respondent know about the IB product and service they are not used these product and service. mostly study indicate that there is need to educate the people about IB product and service and IBS are required to more work for the competition with conventional banking system in Pakistan. Key Words: Islamic Banking, Inflencing Factors, Perception, Customers.
9The Effect of Locus of Control on Academic Performance of the Students at Tertiary level
Pages: 860-869
Details (3141)
The purpose of this study is to research what influences the locus of control has on the learning performance of students. In order to reach this goal, the study’s theoretical frame has been designed including the issues of the locus of control (internal-external) under the framework of organizational behaviour and learning performance. In this research, quantitative research method is used by keeping in mind the scope and qualities of the topic. The scope of research is identified as all the students who continue to higher education. As the population of the research is adequate to study, it is not needed to identify extra sampling. The help of a standardized survey technique gathers the data of the research. The locus of control levels of the subjects, who is going to take part in the research, are measured with The Scale of Internal-External Locus of Control developed by Rotter (1966) and Learning Scale developed by Güngör (2006). The help of descriptive statistical techniques and multiple regression analysis, check the gathered data by using SPSS program. At the end of the research, it is concluded that learning performances of the students with internal locus of control are high, and they are more proactive and effective during the learning process. On the other hand, the ones with external locus of control are more passive and reactive during this period. Apart from these, it is revealed that there are some differences among students’ demographic groups and their learning factors. Key Words: Locus of Control; Learning Performance; Academic Organization.
10The Relationship between Organizational Commitment, Organizational Identification, Person-Organization Fit and Job Satisfaction: A Research on IT Employees
Pages: 870-901
Details (2937)
The Information Technology field has characteristics that make for a unique working environment. This paper presents a study conducted among the Information Technology (IT) employees working at the Ministry of the Turkish Government, which examined the relationship between the constructs; person organization fit, organizational identification, organizational commitment and job satisfaction. First, these constructs were briefly discussed, then the hypotheses were developed based on the relevant literature and the hypotheses were tested in a sample of the IT professionals. IT professionals’ level of organizational commitment and job satisfaction is important in minimizing turnover, improving job performance, minimizing absenteeism, and increasing the level of job involvement. One hundred and forty seven employees of a Ministry filled out the questionnaire. It was determined that there were positive relations between organizational commitment and organizational identification, person organization fit and job satisfaction. Furthermore, positive correlations were determined between organizational commitment and organizational identification, person-organization fit and job satisfaction. The data compiled within the scope of the study were analyzed and interpreted in line with the determined objectives by using the descriptive statistics and employing frequency analysis, correlation and regression analyses. Limitations of the study are also presented along with future research recommendations. IT managers can use this information to increase employee organizational commitment and job satisfaction by considering person -organization fit, and organizational identification when making project assignment and job/work design decisions. Key Words: Organizational Commitment, Organizational Identification, Person-Organization Fit, Job Satisfaction, IT professionals.