Year 2016 , Volume  5, Issue 2, Part 1
1The Effect of Exchange Rate Fluctuation on Economic Activities of Iran
Pages: 353-365
Details (3512)
Investigating the effect of exchange rate fluctuations on gross domestic product (GDP), private consumption, exports, imports and investment is of particular importance. In this study, we apply the exchange rate fluctuations which are analyzed in both expected and unexpected components; the unanticipated components fluctuations include positive and negative shock. In addition, we applied the time series data of 1978-2010 and an auto-regressive model with Distributed Lags (ARDL) to find the relation between variables. The main findings of the model from a positive shock (increase in exchange rate or decrease in money value), negative shock (decrease in exchange rate or increase in money value) and exercising fiscal and monetary policies show that the expected fluctuations have a negative effect on GDP, private consumption, exports, imports and investment. On the other hand, positive unexpected fluctuations (positive shock) have a positive effect on exports but they have a negative impact on all other variables. Finally, it was found that negative unexpected fluctuations have a negative effect only on export but they have a positive impact on all other variables. Key Words: Exchange Rate Fluctuations, Economic Activities, Auto-Regressive Model with Distributed Lags.
2The Journey of The Women of India Toward Empowerment
Pages: 366-378
Details (1052)
Previous studies on microfinance have succeeded in educating people on the effect micro financing has on India’s economic development, but significant efforts have not been made in educating people on the effects microfinance is having on India’s culture and the empowerment of women through SHGs. With this in mind, the study seeks to (1) examine the correlation between empowerment of women, microfinance, and SHGs, (2) analyze the economic and social benefits of microfinance and SHGs on the empowerment of women in India; and (3) research whether women who actively participate in SHGs find social empowerment and by joining together are able to bring change that would have been impossible to do as individuals. This research study is based on a literature review collected through websites, research papers, journals and books, as well as the results and review of an exploratory study conducted Hyderabad and Chennai, India. Key Words: Women, Females, Empowerment, Self-Help Groups, Micro-Finance, India.
3The Analysis of the Clean Water Supply and Demand in the Water-Scarce Regions
Pages: 379-399
Details (944)
Starting with the supply-and-demand analysis in the background of global water shortage, considering various influence factors from natural environment and society. By using the supply and demand balance theory dynamically. We construct the model of water resources supply and demand index to measure the ability of clean water supply in different regions. And take Qingdao as an example to verify the general principles of our model. Calculated that the balance index of water supply and demand is 0.48 while Qingdao’s value is 0.69, which means Qingdao’s water resources situation is very grimmer. In order to finding and solving problems, we designed an intervention plan to alleviate the water shortage and drew the conclusion that the intervention of rainwater collection technology every 1% increase will make the total increase in the supply of 0.0936 units. Besides, we made a qualitative analysis of the possible impacts of the intervention through forecast the water resources in the next 25 years, and found that there are two balance point of supply and demand system, water shortage situation eased, and there will be sufficient water supply to match demand by 2035. Key Words: Water Scarcity, Balance Model of Supply and Demand, Price Index, Intervention Plan.
4Building and Analyzing the Selection Model of Food Supply Chain Enterprises Risk Behaviors
Pages: 400-405
Details (973)
The root cause of food supply chain risks lies in the risk-taking behaviors of food supply chain enterprises. Therefore, it is of great significance for controlling the food supply chain risks to deeply analyze the selection mechanism of food supply chain enterprises’ risk-taking behaviors. With the cost-effectiveness concept being the leading ideas, the food prices, the food supply chain enterprises scale, the productivity change coefficient, the food safety investment and the government’s food safety confiscation being the major variables, this paper built a selection model for the food supply chain enterprises’ risk behaviors. By analyzing this model, we conclude that factors influencing the selection of food supply chain enterprises’ risk behaviorsinclude the productivity change coefficient and the food safety investment, in which, the productivity change coefficient is the key to induce the risk behaviors of food supply chain enterprises, while the more the government’s food safety confiscation is, the less motivation the food supply chain enterprises have to increase food production by risk-taking behaviors. Therefore, the final goal of building a risk prevention and control system for food supply chain safety is to optimize the planting and production management of food supply chain enterprises to the furthest at the micro level. Key Words: Food Supply Chain Enterprises, Risk Behaviors, Regulate Production, Behavior Selection, Model.
5Short Working Time and Organizational Productivity in Selected Companies in Lagos State, Nigeria
Pages: 406-413
Details (1696)
Short working time is any pattern of work schedule that can be used to limit the maximum number of working hours an employee can spend at the workplace. An extended working period can be harmful to employees and therefore there is need to reduce it order to stimulate productivity. There are many positive aspects of short working time which among other things include employee wellbeing and psychological willingness to contribute more to the growth of the firm. This study tries to examine the relationship between short time working and organisational productivity. This study adopted a survey design to generate data from the representative sample size of 640 drawn from a total population of 1200 staff members of some selected companies in Lagos State. Descriptive questionnaires were designed, structured to collect primary sample data. The statistical tests of mean, variance and standard deviation were applied to determine the statistical significance of the study. It was revealed that short time working was significant in boosting employees’ performance and organisational productivity. The study is important because as the population of the state increased and business organisations aspires to remain competitive to take the advantage of the growing market, there is need to realign the work schedule to accommodate people of different work interests. Key Words: Employee Performance, Leisure Preference, Personal Health, Safety Consciousness, Short Working Time, Work Environment, Work-Related Stress.
6Human Resource Development and Preservation: Implications For National Economic Growth
Pages: 414-420
Details (2607)
This paper asserts that the development of the human capital is the basis of consistent national development because it is human resource development that removes obsolescence and redundancy in human and national progress. This paper also avers that the pursuit of human capital development without effective measures of human capital preservation is analogous to building a national monument on quacks as no country can develop what it has not nurtured and preserved. The paper among other issues x-rays Nigeria’s economic situation which is characterized by structural bottlenecks, import dependence and pervasive corruption and highlights the role of micro and macro human resource development, and human capital preservation as some of the difficulties in revitalizing some sectors of Nigeria’s economy may be due to frequent loss of trained, developed, experienced and valuable manpower hence human capital preservation. Key Words: HRM, Economic, Growth, Effecticve Measure.
7Residents Attitude Towards the Development of Ecotourism in Saudi Arabia: Evidence from Farasan Island
Pages: 421-429
Details (1639)
The aim of the present paper is to investigate the impact of residents’ attitude on ecotourism in Farasan Island in KSA (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia). In overall, ecotourism is recognized as a strategic highway to increase growth and to realize a sustainable development without harming the ecosystem. Thus, we considered it as convenient to implement in Farasan because of the natural potential of the island. In the beginning of the paper, the authors provided an extensive literature review regarding the effect of expectations of residents for developing tourism in several economies. In the empirical research, the authors carried out a questionnaire to collect the opinion of residents regarding ecotourism in their region. Utilizing the method of PLS, the empirical findings authorized to underline the positive attitude of residents of Farasan regarding the development of touristic activities. The outcome also revealed that local population had positives expectations that ecotourism would improve the quality of life and the infrastructure of the island. Key Words: Ecotourism, Nature-Based Tourism, Responsible Tourism.
8Organizational Routines Impact on Interfirm Collaboration. Rationale and Research Framework
Pages: 430-437
Details (859)
The paper analyses how pre - entry routines, i.e. organizational ones, influence a firm’s propensity to enter inter-organizational collaborative relationships. The general question this paper addresses is how organizational routines and inter-organizational relationships interfere. Hence, the aim is to present a theoretical and methodological proposition, exploiting an evolutionary perspective and network approach, aiming to examine inter-dependencies between organizational routines and inter-organizational relationships. Strategic literature has devoted relatively limited attention to the organizational routines enabling firms to collaborate so as to achieve a fit over time and finally to survive in the overcrowded industry settings. We contribute to fill the research gap by exploring the routine approach. It allows investigating how firm’s routines are associated with the propensity to operate in inter-organizational context. Consequently, the following hypotheses have been formulated: (1) The higher the level of routineness, the lower the propensity to collaborate; (2) Propensity to collaborate is positively related to organizational performance; (3) Environmental dynamics and environmental uncertainty moderate positively the relationship between routineness and propensity to collaborate; (4) Managerial execution-oriented performance moderates negatively the relationship between routineness and propensity to collaborate, (5) Managerial innovation-oriented performance moderates positively the relationship between routineness and propensity to collaborate; (6) External orientation positively moderates the relationship between routineness and propensity to collaborate; and (7) Internal orientation negatively moderates the relationship between routineness and propensity to collaborate. Key Words: Organizational Routines Inter-Firm Collaboration, Evolutionary and Network Approach.
9Impact of Brand Experience Built by GSM Operators in Turkey on Young Consumers Brand Loyalty
Pages: 438-450
Details (1299)
The concept of brand loyalty is a subject of intense interest in the marketing literature. The aim of this study is to determine whether the consumers’ brand experience in GSM sector has an impact on their brand loyalty. The study consists of two main parts. In the literature section, which attempted to constitute the conceptual framework, the definitions of brand experience and brand loyalty are made and the importance of brand loyalty for buisnesses are emphasized. The hypotheses in order to test the effects of the factors of which brand experience is comprised within the conceptual framework on brand loyalty are analyzed by using a sample consisting of 446 participants who have had experiences with GSM opertors. The study results reveal that emotional, sensorial, cognitive and behavioral consumer experiences of GSM operators have significant impacts on both cognitive and emotional brand loyalty. It is seen that emotional, sensorial, cognitive and behavioral consumer experiences are effective on cognitive consumer loyalty; while emotional experiences have no statistically significant impact on behavioral loyalty. The conclusion section of the study presents proposals for business executives, marketers and marketing researchers along with the evaluation of mentioned impacts. Key Words: Brand Experience, Brand Loyalty, Young Consumers’, GSM Operators, Turkey.
10Hedonic or Utilitarian Product: The Influence of Temporal Distance upon Consumers Choice
Pages: 451-461
Details (1519)
The concept of temporal distance is already understood and discussed in Construal Level Theory. In previous researches, however, we found severely limited understanding regarding the influence of temporal distance on consumer behavior. This research looks into how temporal distance affects consumer preference to hedonic and utilitarian products by conducting two experiments. In Experiment 1, it demonstrated that consumers under nearer temporal distance prefer products with better utilitarian attributes over those with better hedonic attributes in purchases, while their preference goes to products with better hedonic attributes against those with better utilitarian attributes in purchases under farther temporal distance. In Experiment 2, variables in a decision-making task (chosen or forgone decision-making) were added to demonstrate that there is a reciprocal influence from temporal distance and decision-making model upon consumer choice between utilitarian and hedonic products. In a buying context under nearer temporal distance, consumers prefer products with better utilitarian attributes in the chosen decision-making (compared with products with better hedonic attributes), while consumers prefer products with better hedonic attributes in the forgone decision-making (compared with products with better utilitarian attributes). In a buying context under farther temporal distance, consumers prefer products with better hedonic attributes, regardless of chosen or forgone decision-making (compared with products with better utilitarian attributes). Key Words: Temporal Distance, Hedonic Attributes, Utilitarian Attributes, Decision-Making Task.