Year 2013 , Volume 2, Issue 3, Part 2 Year 2013 , Volume  2, Issue 3, Part 2
1Pak-China Economic Alliance to Bring Prosperity in Region
Pages: 776-782
Details (1193)
Pak China relation in friendship and trade begins since China?s year of independence 1949. Pakistan is the first country in the world to accept china at UNO forum. China respects the stand and support of Pakistan. China is the only country in the world, which helps Pakistan at every forum, for instance trade, commerce, agriculture, defence etc. Presently they are contributing on large scale in Power and Energy sector to tackle the shortage of electricity and power problems in Pakistan. Additionally China is helping Pakistan in defence related activities. In long-term the two governments have accorded to continue to play the lead role in providing a strategic framework and institutions of cooperation and guiding and facilitating economic and commercial interaction. The two countries agreed to strengthen the cooperation between the private enterprises, which will be the real operators. Collaboration between research institutions will help in analysing the situation, identifying the potential areas and providing assessment that will help the collaboration process. An interaction between government agencies, business community and the research institutions will have synergic impact. Key Words: Friendship, Government, Energy, Electricity, Institution, Analysing.
2Right to Work Laws: Is There a Hidden Agenda?
Pages: 783-783
Details (1047)
Have Blacks employed legislators who no longer promote the common good, nor the right to their posterity? One hundred forty-seven years after the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Blacks have become mere spectators in the vilification of unionism by legislators; the same legislators who once endorsed goodwill for workers across racial lines. Significant strides were made to organize Blacks by the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) in effort to improve racial inequality following years of racial discrimination at the hands of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). By the mid-1970s, Blacks were more likely to enroll in unions than Whites?; therefore, it makes sense to question whether there is a hidden agenda underpinning the implementation of Right to Work laws? Consequently, where is the Black voice on the topic of Right to Work, and have Blacks capitulated to modern Jim Crowism? This paper presents a critical investigation on the racist roots of the Right to Work laws and their impact to the proportion of the union/workforce that is Black. It is that argued Right to Work Laws spew anti-Black epithets and anti-labor propaganda into the labor market. This article questions whether Blacks? social equality has fallen victim to a seemingly hidden agenda of modern Jim Crowism. Key Words: Right to work laws, unionism, right to work movement.
3Equipment Leasing and the Span of Control Management: Study of the Industrial Sector of Nigeria
Pages: 784-797
Details (1371)
Evidenced poor performance of the industrial sector, accounts for the low rates of the macro economic development in Nigeria. This is attributed to inefficiency in the management of the technology base of operation given excessive span of control in the units of operational levels. Hence the advocated delegation of technology base of operational to lessors. This work compared lease based and non leased based firms on the basis of profitability, Profit/Net Asset ratio and consumer satisfaction based on reported performance-(Audited Annual Account,) questionnaire and interviews as sources of data; and found that lease based firm have better level of efficiency firm higher profit/Net Assets ratio and higher rating in consumer satisfaction. Thus recommends that organizations should increase their span of control effectiveness by delegating the sourcing and management of their equipment base of operation as an operational unit to lessors. Key Words: Equipment Leasing, Lessor, Lessee, Span of Control, Profitability, Consumer Satisfaction, Marketing activity gap.
4Antecedents of Employees Strength: Its Causes and Consequences in Universities Teachers
Pages: 798-804
Details (1167)
Employee performance is a conscious and sensitive observation in every organization. Every where employee performance play a very vital role in the productivity of and organization. Employee performance is dependent upon their strength. While employee strength is dependent upon various factors. This research is focused on that what are the factors that contribute for employee strength and how these factors influence it. Research identifies eight independent factors that influence employee strength. These independent factors are Trust, Innovative Environment, Management Support, Leadership style, Development initiative, Training and development, Performance management and work environment while employee strength depends upon them. For data collection a structured questionnaire was used in three public and three private universities teachers randomly. Study uses a sample of 150 respondents for analysis. Analysis use correlation and regression analysis. Findings of the study show that performance management and leadership styles have greater contribution towards employee strength as compare to other independent factors in teachers. Key Words: Employee strength, performance Management, Leadership styles, Universities and Peshawar.
5Walking the Talk in Strategy and Policy Implementation: A Survey of Secondary Schools in Meru Central District
Pages: 805-817
Details (1234)
Strategic planning is one of the major strategies for improving secondary school performance in Kenya. However, the implementation of strategic planning has been faced with challenges that need to be investigated. This study investigated the influence of stakeholder involvement, availability of financial resources, leadership styles and technical competence on the implementation of the strategic planning policy in secondary schools within Meru Central District. The study adopted a descriptive research design and a stratified random sampling technique to select 334 respondents comprising of 17 Principals, 114 teachers and 203 members of school Boards of Governors. The data was collected using a questionnaire and the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer program aided in analysis. Inferential statistics of Regression analysis model was used to test the hypothesis. The study concluded that technical competence, financial resources, stakeholder involvement and leadership styles had a significant relationship with the implementation of the strategic planning policy. The study recommends that policy makers at the Ministry of Education improve the implementation of the strategic planning policy in secondary schools through pointing out loopholes in the implementation of the strategic planning policy in schools, principals to create a higher level of stakeholder?s involvement in any further strategy development and review. It is also critical that a review is done to distinguish between strategic plan implementation and other performance and quality management tools, besides institutionalizing policies so that their guiding philosophies are shared across the faculty membership. Further study can also be executed on the effectiveness of the strategic management plans being implemented in the Secondary schools. Key Words: Strategic Planning, Policy, Technical Competence, Stakeholder Involvement.
6Testing Different Overtime Policies with Different Price and Due Date Negotiation Strategies
Pages: 818-836
Details (1148)
Today, organizations use of e-commerce tools for purchasing and sales have developed from e-catalogs and e-mail to e-auctions. This research simulated such a fully automated negotiation system for business transactions to test the best overtime policies to use with different decision rules for price and due date. Software within e-commerce systems negotiates prices and due dates using pre-thought out negotiation strategies. This research tests tested the effect of several overtime policies with different price and due date negotiation strategies. It used a simulation of a job shop and an imaginary market to demonstrate how one can compare different combinations of overtime policies and negotiation strategies in different markets. It extends previous research by including the option of using flexible overtime both at the quotation stage and during shop operation. The research suggested that simulation testing of negotiation and overtime strategies for firms and their markets is a practical way of choosing overtime policies. Key Words: E-Negotiation, Demand Management, Due Date Negotiation, Job Shop, overtime.
7Comparison of Islamic and Conventional Banking on the Basis of Riba and Services A case study of Peshawar Region
Pages: 837-846
Details (1796)
Islamic banking was introduced in Pakistan in 1970 to meet the religious and economic needs of the people of Pakistan, wider steps have been taken in 1980 by the Banking Companies Ordinance (BCO 1962), which was modified to accommodate transactions are not interest-based banking system in Pakistan. What needs to be evaluated is the knowledge of Islamic banking products among customers of Peshawar. The reasons for changing the conventional banking to Islamic banking has been analyzed. This study will present the results of research carried out mainly with people who currently use conventional and Islamic banking and Islamic banking knowledge. In this research, we have tried to highlight some of the problems that are causing problems for the growth of Islamic banking. The dependent variables in this research are changing in other Islamic banks, customer satisfaction. We selected a sample size of 150 banking client (male and female) and used descriptive and correlation analysis to analyze the relationship between customer satisfaction and Islamic Banking Services in Peshawar. Key Words: Islamic Banking, Conventional Banking, Islamic Finance.
8Moderating Role of Procedural Justice and Empowerment in Transformational Leadership with its impact on Organizational Commitment
Pages: 847-852
Details (1216)
The rationale of the present study is to find out the importance of transformational leadership and its impact on organizational commitment with the moderating role of procedural justice and empowerment in the private banking sector of Peshawar region. For data collection five point Likert scale questionnaire, consisting of 24 items were used. On the basis of simple random sampling sixteen private banks were selected. Total 300 questionnaires were distributed; out of which 250 received response rate was 83.5%. Organizational Commitment is positively related to Procedural Justice but the results were non-significant (P>0.01), similarly Organizational Commitment is positively related to empowerment (P<0.01), variance of these predictors were 12% which shows weak relevance however overall model shows significance (P<0.01). Findings of the results explained that Organizational Commitment is positively related with transformational leadership (P<0.01), variance of these two predictors were 16% which shows weak relevance but overall model shows significance (P<0.01).In the recommendations part of the report, it has been advocated that banking organizations need to provide congenial work environment wherein employees feel they are taken care of in a just and unbiased manner. Key Words: Procedural Justice, Leadership, Organizational commitment Banking sector.
9Effects of Sales Revenue by Use of Mobile Phone Money Transfer on the Profitability of the Micro and Small Enterprises in Bungoma County
Pages: 853-861
Details (1581)
There have been relatively few studies focusing directly on the way mobile payments are used to enhance the quality of the services of MSEs especially those in rural areas and therefore increasing their profitability. MSEs also from the rural areas face problems in settling their day to day transactions as they had to close down their businesses to visit banks to settle their obligations where we have problems of infrastructure and in addition most of MSEs in the rural areas do not have bank accounts. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mobile phone-money transfer services (M-PESA) on the profitability of Micro and Small Enterprises in Bungoma South District. The specific objectives of the study were to; determine the effect of cost reduction, sales revenue and market share by use of mobile phone money transfer services on the profitability of Micro and Small Enterprises. The target population was MSEs in Bungoma South District which consisted businesses such as retail shops, tailoring, chemists, hardware?s, carpentry, metal workers, hair salons, repair services and butcheries. The sampling technique used was multi-stage random sampling where a total of 57 sample size was yielded. Excel Computer Package was used to analyse data which was descriptive and presented in form of graphs, pie-charts, frequency and percentage tables. Some of the major findings included that almost each business own or have used a mobile phone in their business at 98%, education level and duration of running the business has an effect on the profitability of that business. Other major findings were that Mobile Money Transfer services forms the highest percentage of usage among the respondents at 86% as opposed to traditional banking hall and money transfer companies at 10% and 4% respectively as it reduced their transport cost and risks when sending cash. Mobile Money Transfer services were also rated above average with 58% and have assisted MSEs to reduce costs as it reduced the number of times going to the bank i.e. time saving on queuing, it left individuals with more time to run and monitor their businesses one on one, transaction fees are lower than those charged by most banks and it?s easier to use it when paying for clients and customers in their rural areas. Most MSEs also felt that mobile money transfer services have helped to increase sales revenue as mobile phones are mostly used by businessmen to communicate with customers and suppliers and also has helped the business to grow and as a result increased the productivity and profitability of the business. There are many institutions in Kenya that train people on computer usage, but none trains them on mobile phone usage, a technology that is transforming lives for the better in the informal sector. More effort should be made to educate the public especially the MSEs on business benefits of these new technologies. It is commendable that the Kenyan government has removed tax from mobile handsets making mobile phones affordable by many people. Nevertheless, it should also assist in bringing down the cost of airtime further so as to induce most of the MSEs in using the mobile money transfer services. Internet enabled mobile phones are already on the Kenyan market and most MSEs in rural areas do not use these service therefore training is required to enlighten rural people as the internet is important for the import or export of goods, and MSEs that would like to participate in global markets should be given a chance to make informed market choices by being enlightened on internet-based mobile phones. Key Words: Sales revenue, Mobile Phone Money, Transfer system, Profitability, Micro and Small Enterprises.
10The Effect of Involvement, Emotion, and Exposure on Sponsor Recall and Recognition: An International Comparative Study at the FIFA 2006 World Cup
Pages: 862-877
Details (1172)
This paper seeks to measure the effect of involvement, emotion, exposure and sociodemographic variables on sponsor recall and recognition, at the FIFA 2006 World Cup. Our quantitative investigation has been conducted on a sample covering 657 people in six African countries. The obtained results show that the effects of involvement, emotion on sponsor recall and recognition are stronger in the countries with low soccer culture. Sponsorship has experienced a surge in its development since the 1980s (Cornwell & Maignan, 1998; Walliser, 2003,). It is one of the fastest-growing communication tools (Witcher et al, 1991). The growth of this type of communication both online and offline is accounted for by several factors. the sponsor?s product captures the audience?s attention more effectively since their cognitive defenses are weakened while they watch a program or attend an event of their choice. In addition, it profits from the positive affective state of the audience (their emotions), which can affect their reaction to sponsor stimuli (Pham, 1992; Walliser, 2003). The idea was to measure the effect of several classic explanatory variables on sponsor recall from an international sports event, in several different countries, with different levels of soccer culture and experience. The results show that there are significant differences regarding sponsor recall and sponsor recognition in the six countries investigated and in the two groups of countries. Our quantitative investigation has been conducted on a sample covering 657 people in six African countries. This study has the advantage of being conducted during a real worldwide event and of measuring the spontaneous reactions of TV viewers (a non-student group) under real-life conditions immediately after the end of the FIFA 2006 World Cup. It will thus have a better external validity than laboratory research (Pham, 1992, etc.). The obtained results show that the effects of involvement, emotion on sponsor recall and recognition are stronger in the countries with low soccer culture. Whatever the origin of the individuals, and no matter the country or the place of study - African or Western - there is a limit or a cognitive threshold to sponsor recall and recognition. We find that sponsor recall varies positively with enduring involvement and emotion, particularly arousal and pleasure. However, age has an effect only on sponsor recall in. In contrast to other studies, our research shows that older people memorize the sponsor better in aided. It also shows that younger women memorize the sponsor better than older women. Key Words: Sponsorship, Fifa, Involvement, Emotion, Soccer Culture.