Year 2023 , Volume 12, Issue 3, Part 1 Year 2023 , Volume  12, Issue 3, Part 1
1Marketing Dynamics in Saudi Higher Education: Evaluating the Role of Top Management and Market Orientation on Institutional Performance
Pages: 1-45
Details (136)
Despite significant investments by the Saudi Arabian government to elevate its education to international standards, the outcomes of the higher education system don't align with various stakeholders' expectations. This study examines the key role of market orientation in higher education, a concept less explored in academia compared to the business sector. The research evaluates the impact of top management's emphasis and internal market orientation on the broader market orientation within Saudi's higher education landscape. Additionally, it probes the direct and innovativeness-mediated effects of market orientation on institutions' perceived performance. Data obtained from 263 valid responses to an online questionnaire, underwent exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to ensure construct validity and reliability. Structural equation modeling further illuminated the relationships, confirming the influence of top management’s emphasis on internal market orientation and its subsequent impact on market orientation. Notably, market orientation showed a direct positive effect on perceived performance, with innovativeness acting as a mediator.
Keywords: Market Orientation, internal-Marketing Orientation, Management Emphasis, Innovativeness.
2Factors Influencing The Growth of Mutual Funds Companies in the Pakistan Stock Exchange
Pages: 46-53
Details (137)
Mutual fund industry plays a vital and an essential role in optimum allocation, capitalization, and utilization of limited resources of small individual investors. This research is conducted in order to investigate and analyze various factor that attribute to growth of mutual fund in Pakistan. Further, in this research secondary data from 2018 to 2022 of 8 different companies is used and Management Fee, Size, Turnover ratio and expense ratio as independent variables and growth as dependent variable. For purpose of data analysis, Hausman test is used to find appropriate model, regression analysis is used to check contribution of variables on dependent variable and correlation is used. The results showed that management fee and expenses play a vital role in growth of mutual funds, whereas management fee affects positively and expense affects negatively on growth. Further, all analysis is performed by E-views software.
Keywords: Mutual Funds, Growth, Management Fee, Expense Ratio, Assets Turnover.
3Perception of Mindfulness in IT Sector: An Evidence from Pakistan
Pages: 54-60
Details (137)
The aim of current research is to analyze the perception of “Mindfulness” in IT sector of Pakistan through difference in demographic profile like age, gender, position and experience. The statistical cosmos of the study was consisting of 300 employees from different IT firms through methodology of simple random sampling. The sample data has been collected through self –administered questionnaire. The statistical tool SPSS has been used to analyze the data. The results indicated that to a significant degree, the perception diverse depending on the respondent’s variation in the demographic profile. Therefore, cultivating awareness about the mindful work force and importance of the mindfulness in the organizations at broader level and in the IT organizational workforce on the narrowed level can be well thought-out and effectual strategy to reduce the poor performance effect that influences the employees of the organizations.
Keywords: Mindfulness, IT Sector, Mindful, Demographic Profile, IT Workplace.
4Exploring Innovation Performance and Big Data Analytics Capabilities in the Context of Culture for Potential Advancements
Pages: 61-76
Details (145)
The era of abundant data is flourishing, primarily driven by the exponential generation of new data, facilitated by the widespread use of electronic devices and internet-connected networks. This reservoir of big data holds the potential to become a crucial source of competitive advantage. However, there is a noticeable gap in research regarding how organizations should adapt to extract value from this data. Recent studies are now delving into the structures and strategies that empower organizations to consistently foster innovation through dynamic capabilities, ultimately leading to the introduction of new products. The organization's resource-based perspective recognizes a firm's dynamic capabilities as the primary wellspring of sustainable competitive advantage. To promote innovation, the cultivation of a culture that actively encourages inventive endeavors across the organization becomes paramount. This study centers on examining how big data analytics capabilities impact organizational innovation, with a moderating influence from organizational culture. It draws upon the resource-based view and sociomateriality theory to pinpoint gaps in the current literature and propose actionable solutions.
Keywords: Big Data Analytics (BDA) Capabilities, Big Data, Dynamic Capabilities Oriented Towards Processes (DCOP), Innovation, Company Culture (CC).
5Factors Promoting Ethical Behaviour of Nurses: A Management Approach of Nishtar Hospital Pakistan
Pages: 77-90
Details (115)
The research reported in this thesis was on “Factors promoting Ethical behaviour of nurses in hospitals”. The purpose of the research was to study the impact of 5 different factors on the ethical behaviour of students and how to respond to the effects of those factors in the given scenario. The secondary data was collected from the published articles on the ethical behaviour of employees (nurses)/students given on the Jstor while the primary data was gathered by floating questionnaires among the nurses of Nishtar Hospital and SPSS software was applied to analyze data for frequencies correlations parameters and CFA technique was done by using the AMOS software. The findings supported that the ethical behaviour of self is influenced by different variables like law and professional codes, ethical behaviour of peers, ethical climate, ethical optimism, and ethical education. Hence ethical behaviour can be enforced in a company, university, or hospital by implementing these very factors. 
Keywords: Ethics, Ethical Behaviour, Management, Factors, Hospital, Law and Professional Codes, Ethical Climate, Ethical Optimism, Ethical Education.
6Human Resource Analytics: Perspective of Human Resource Employees
Pages: 91-103
Details (115)
To survive in a highly competitive world, the corporate world is witnessing a paradigm shift from a traditional Human Resource Management approach to a Strategic Human Resource Management approach through the incorporation of various technology-based advancements such as Human Resource Analytics. This quantitative research aims to investigate the effects of Perceived Usefulness, Social Influence, and Facilitating Conditions on the adoption of Human Resource Analytics by employees working in HR departments of listed companies in Pakistan. Data was collected from 490 respondents working in the listed companies. The psychometric analysis and path analysis (to test hypothesized relationships) was conducted through Structural Equation Modeling. The results confirm that Perceived Usefulness, Social Influence, and Facilitating Conditions are positively associated with Intentions to adopt Human Resource Analytics and intentions are positively related with actual adoption of Human Resource Analytics from the perspective of employees working in Human Resource Departments. The findings of this research contribute to our understanding of the behavior of Human Resource employees for the adoption of novice approaches in Strategic Human Resource Management.
Keywords: Adoption, Facilitating Conditions, Human Resource Analytics, Intentions, Perceived Usefulness, Social Influence, Theory of Planned Behaviors.
7A Study of Antecedents of IOT Adoption for Smart Homes With Actual Users in Pakistan
Pages: 104-113
Details (113)
The purpose of this study is determination of factors that contribute and foster the IOT adoption in developing countries i.e. Pakistan. IOT has potential to automate almost every arena i.e. agriculture, industry, services and therefore, it becomes essential to understand its determinants. The study incorporates 350 plus responses of actual users of IOT from entire Pakistan. The data thus obtained was analyzed using Smart PLS. Performance & effort expectancy, facilitating conditions, price value & challenges were found to be the strongest predictor of IOT adoption in Pakistan. This study will be extremely beneficial for companies that are planning to serve Pakistani IOT market. Once they will be able to identify the underlying factors for adoption they can focus to build their advantage in those arenas and can create customer delight. The study validates the application of UTAUT2 in the context of IOT in developing markets i.e. Pakistan.
Keywords: Adoption of IOT, Determinants of Smart Home, Home Automation, Challenges in IOT, UTAUT2.
8Unveiling the Positive Aspects of Functional Presenteeism: Investigating the Role of Autonomous Motivation and Meaningful Work in the Workplace
Pages: 114-124
Details (117)
The present study draws on the self-determination theory (SDT) to determine the impact of autonomous motivation on functional presenteeism with the mediating effect of meaningful work. The data was collected from 151 full-time working professionals working in organizations. The data analysis was performed by using the SPSS Process macro. The study aimed to find out the relation of autonomous motivation with meaningful work and the subsequent relation of meaningful work with functional presenteeism, using selfdetermination theory. Our study found a positive relationship between autonomous motivation and functional presenteeism with the mediation effect of meaningful work. Our findings offer new connections between functional presenteeism and a growing body of literature on SDT. The current study explains the linking mechanism between autonomous motivation and functional presenteeism. This study can contribute to a comprehensive understanding of presenteeism by observing it as adaptive behavior, seeing presentees as diverse groups, and discovering the significance of the work environment by corresponding performance demands and health. It sketches novel opportunities for research and the effective management of presenteeism, health, and performance. Organizations should consider addressing the factors of the work environment in their efforts to promote autonomous motivation and functional presenteeism in their employees.
Keywords: Autonomous Motivation, Meaningful Work, Functional Presenteeism, Self-Determination Theory, Attendance Behavior, Health.
9The Effect of Employees Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility on their Level of Motivation
Pages: 125-135
Details (130)
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is primarily researched at the corporate level. Few researchers (e.g.,Peterson, 2004) examined in what way each worker (the firm's internal audience) develops attitudes and actions based on their perceptions of CSR. The most suitable approach to the current study was explanatory analysis since it depended upon first-hand information. The survey based on a questionnaire was conducted on 1000 employees of the sales department of different cellular companies in Pakistan. The data was collected through simple random sampling. The data were analyzed using SPSS, and crosstabulation was used to determine the Employee's perception of CSR (independent variable) on employees' level of motivation (dependent variable). The main purpose of this study is to examine the employee's perception of CSR and their level of motivation. The following are some salient findings of the study: The majority of those surveyed declared that they had favorable CSR impressions of their organization. It was observed that better performance and productivity of the labor force depend on the behavior of the organization. The present research discovered a substantial link between CSR perception and employee motivation level. Hence in light of the present research findings, it is possible to conclude that employee perception of corporate social responsibility positively impacted employee level of motivation organizations should be worried about the way employees perceive these three corporate citizenship characteristics to develop a productive workforce. If companies focus on legal/ethical and charitable duties while ignoring employee responsibilities, they risk developing just the motivation of their workers, staying weak, and performance being degraded. This research fills a gap in the previous studies by demonstrating how workers' opinions about corporate social responsibility influence their motivation's extent at the corporate level. The first-hand information was collected from a survey of 1000 employees of different cellular/mobile phone companies in the Punjab region of Pakistan.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Employee, Motivation, Satisfaction, Telecommunication.
10Is There a Significant Increase in (FDI) to Pakistan as a Result of CPEC?
Pages: 136-142
Details (121)
The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), a strategic cooperative initiative between China and Pakistan worth an estimated $62 billion, has indisputably reshaped the landscape of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Pakistan. Since its inception in 2013, the total net FDI in Pakistan has seen a significant increase. For instance, between 2013 and 2019, the net FDI increased from $1.45 billion to $2.24 billion, representing a growth of over 54% (State Bank of Pakistan, 2020). The majority of CPEC funding would go toward energy and infrastructure projects. Energy projects will get $33 billion of the overall funding. The energy imbalance has been cut in half from 4,500 MW in 2013 to nearly nothing in 2020 because of these initiatives (Javaid & Javaid, 2018). The geographical distribution of this investment, however, reveals a concentration in Punjab and Balochistan, leaving behind other provinces like Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. This imbalanced distribution could exacerbate regional inequalities, potentially stoking socio-economic tensions. Although the energy and infrastructure sectors have benefited greatly from FDI, other industries, including agriculture, manufacturing, and services, have not seen the same level of investment. This discrepancy may indicate an over-focus on a few industries, underlining the need for more diverse investment to support long-term development. Constant discussion surrounds the long-term effects of this huge FDI inflow. Proponents say it can improve infrastructure, end energy shortages, and spur economic development. However, critics warn about the growing debt, with debt payment costs projected to reach a high of roughly $5 billion by 2022 (Wolf, 2020).
Keywords: FDI, Investment, CPEC, China, Pakistan.
11Citizenship Awareness Appraisal in Mohmand District: Shaping Post Merger Development in Former FATA
Pages: 143-150
Details (109)
This research paper investigates the participatory action needs-based assessment process in the newly merged district of Mohmand, Erstwhile FATA, with a focus on citizenship awareness and knowledge. A questionnaire was developed, and a survey was conducted involving 220 participants. Additionally, four focus group events were organized, engaging 84 participants to identify common needs and plan actions. Citizenship awareness and community development emerged as significant concerns, leading to action planning. The study highlights the effectiveness of participatory action research in mobilizing individuals on citizenship awareness. Common concerns in the locality include water, electricity, education, and communication infrastructure, while strengths lie in healthcare and government schooling. The research underscores the low citizenship awareness and knowledge levels in the region. Demographically, awareness varies based on family income, and knowledge varies with gender, education, and family income. The paper strongly recommends prioritizing basic facilities and equal treatment for Mohmand district residents to foster citizenship awareness and ensure equitable access to benefits and rights in line with national citizenship standards. In order to address the identified gaps in citizenship awareness and knowledge in other newly merged districts like Mohmand, it is important to go deeper into the specific tactics and interventions. For policymakers and practitioners, it would be beneficial to investigate the long-term effects of greater access to basic services on civic consciousness and participation.
Keywords: Citizenship Awareness, Knowledge level, Participatory Action, District Mohmand.
12Analyzing the Impact of Technology-Based Work Environment on Employee Morale: An Assessment between Public and Private Sector Enterprises in Pakistan
Pages: 151-159
Details (109)
In today's modern world, particularly in developing countries, organizations depend on technology to enhance operational efficiency and attain sustainable growth in the fiercely competitive market. However, the successful integration of technology into existing practices and garnering employee support presents a prominent managerial challenge. To recognize substantial improvements in work processes, technology implementation must be accompanied by employee satisfaction. The COVID-19 pandemic underscored the vital role of technology across various sectors, compelling employees to adapt to technological solutions. As businesses return to physical operations, technology continues to play a pivotal role. This research investigates the connection between technology-based work environments and employee morale, utilizing a descriptive research methodology that spans a diverse population from both the public and private sectors. The findings of this study reveal a significant positive relationship between technology-based work environments and employee morale.
Keywords: Information Technology, Work Environment, Employee Well-Being, Job Satisfaction, Motivation, Performance and Innovation.
13Impact of Credit Risk on the Profitability of Banks: A Case of Retail Banking Products
Pages: 160-170
Details (105)
Retail banking also known as consumer banking is the provision of services such as credit cards, auto financing, consumer durable loans, and other personal loans by a bank to individual consumers rather than to corporations, companies, or other banks. The main purpose of the research is to analyze the impact of credit risk of retail banking products on the profitability of the commercial banks of Pakistan. Return on Asset (ROA) and Return on Equity (ROE) are used as dependent variables (DV) to measure the profitability of commercial banks while infection ratios of Credit Cards (CC), Auto Loans (AL), Personal Loans (PL), and Consumer Durables (CD) are used as Independent Variables to measure credit risk. Liquidity Ratio (LR) and Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) are used as control variables. Simple Regression analysis is performed on time series data of all 30 commercial banks working in Pakistan, from the year 2004-2020 using SPSS. Overall results of this study show there is negative impact of credit risk of retail banking products on the profitability of commercial banks. This study is helpful for policy maker in understanding the contribution of retail banking products to the overall credit risk of commercial banks and they will be able to manage their credit risk more effectively by devising various policies regarding the credit risk related to retail banking products. It will help the management of commercial banks to review their retail banking portfolio and improve their policies to increase the profitability of commercial banks.
Keywords: Credit Risk, Profitability, Credit Card (CC), Auto Loan (AL), Personal Loan (PL), Consumer Durables (CD).
14The Dark Side of Ostracism: Unveiling the Link between Workplace Ostracism, Knowledge Hiding, and OCB in Pakistan
Pages: 171-179
Details (90)
Workplace ostracism and knowledge hiding are pervasive issues that can negatively affect organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) among employees. This study's purpose was to examine the individual relationships of workplace ostracism and knowledge hiding with OCB in the Pakistani context. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with employees across various industries in Pakistan. The data were analyzed using regression analysis to test the direct effects of workplace ostracism and knowledge hiding on OCB. The findings provided insights into how these harmful workplace behaviors undermine extra-role behaviors that are beneficial for organizational effectiveness. This study will help identify the drivers of key workplace behaviors and inform managers on how to mitigate the detrimental impacts of ostracism and knowledge hiding.
Keywords: Workplace Ostracism, Knowledge Hiding, OCB, Extra Role Behaviors.
15Green Foreign Aid for Environmentally Sustainable Growth in South Asian Countries
Pages: 180-193
Details (83)
Among others, environmental degradation has emerged as a serious challenge to be tackled on an urgent basis, worldwide. South Asia, like many other countries, is facing a trade-off between environment and development, therefore environmental degradation has proved to be a threat to the entire South Asian region’s sustainable economic growth. Although various factors are responsible for environmental degradation in these countries, the study underwrites the evolving thought of the Environment Kuznets Curve (EKC) by incorporating green aid as a moderating factor and the contribution of economic growth, green aid, population density, and institutional quality are taken as explanatory variables in determining the path and levels of environmental degradation in South Asian region. Panel Quantile Regression Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (PQARDL) has been employed for the quantitative analysis for the period of 2000-2021. The long run, short run, and convergence coefficients have been estimated. The long-run results bared that economic expansion, green aid, the interaction of economic expansion square with green aid, and quality of institutions have an affirmative and contrarily, the square of economic growth, interaction of economic growth and green aid and population density are found adversely related to degradation of the environment. At the same time, economic growth, the interaction of economic growth with green aid, and population density are negatively concomitant with environmental degradation in the short run. Whereas, an affirmative and significant association has been found between squared economic growth, green aid, the interaction of squared economic growth with green aid, and institutional quality with environmental deterioration in the short run. Likewise, the coefficient of convergence speed is found to be significant but negative. The upshots of the study suggest that attracting green aid by growing international collaboration with international agencies and organizations, strengthening institutional quality, and adopting sustainable urbanization strategies would play the role of environmental safeguard without hurting economic growth in South Asian countries.
Keywords: Green Aid, Environmental Degradation, Environment and Growth, South Asia, Panel Data Model.