Year 2022 , Volume 11, Issue 2, Part 1 Year 2022 , Volume  11, Issue 2, Part 1
1Family Firms Challenges toward Strategic Change: Internal and External Factors Effects on Poultry Business Firms Survival
HASSAN RAHNAMA
Pages: 1-30
Details (480)
Family-owned companies have a valuable place of investment and the Gross Domestic Product of nations. The agricultural sector affects the welfare and development of countries. We designed to research the strategic change management challenges of seventy-seven family firms of the Poultry Business Cluster (P.B.C.) in the sub-clusters of Breeder chicken growers, Feed producers, and Equipment suppliers (B.F.E.) in Iran. The study aimed to understand the family firms' survival strategies based on their strategic change policies. We applied a quantitative research method to measure respondents' attitudes using SPSS 22 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences 22) and ANOVA test. We also used the Likert scale to describe the traits and attitudes of respondents, the Delphi technique to get experts' opinions on the relevant topics, Cochran's random sampling method to get a finite sample population, and the Friedman ranking test to prioritize challenges from respondents' points of view. Finally, this article addresses the importance of variables of factors that affect the family firm's life cycle. This study showed that these firms apply change management strategies to survive. They use this strategy despite constraints of innovative traits, resources' orchestration, goal setting, entrepreneur knowledge, and investment to train the next generations.
Keywords: Conflict, Goal, Innovation, Resource, Entrepreneurship, Life Cycle.
2The Effect of Occupational Stress on Critical Care Nurses Performance in a Tertiary Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia
ANWAR YAGOYB HOSAWI and KHADIJAH ANGAWI
Pages: 31-50
Details (264)
Occupational stress is a global problem imposing harmful effects on the employee's psychological and physical state, and can have a direct impact on the organisation's managers and employees. As a result, it negatively affects their quality of care and productivity. The healthcare sector is one of the significant fields affected by occupational Stress, and it disturbs both hospital performance and patient satisfaction. The study investigates the relationship between occupational stress and critical care nurses' job performance, measures occupational stress levels, and determines the most stressful factors that arise from critical care nurses' occupational stress. This study is a descriptive correlational cross-sectional study conducted at Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Saudi Arabia, Makkah. An electronic self-administrative survey was randomly distributed to all nurses in I.C.U., CCU, OR, E.R., and the burns unit. It designed to assess nurses occupational stress stressors in the critical care departments. The survey instrument consists of three segments: assessing occupational stress and Nursing Performance. The findings indicates a significant relationship between occupational stress and educational and marital status, offering a higher stress level among single nurses with a master's degree certificate. While, the nurses' performance shows a significant relationship with nurses rank, showing the highest performance among assistant nurses. Furthermore, the study found a significant association between O.S. and the critical care nurses' job performance (P =0.043), and that relationship was a negatively negligible correlation since (r = - 0.191). Performing Further research is necessary, since this study was affected by the COVID-19 Pandemic.
Keywords: Critical Care Unit, Cross-sectional Correlation, Nurses, Occupational Stress, Performance, Saudi Arabia, Work-related Stress.
3Address the Factors Associated with Length of Stay at King Abdullah Medical City in Makkah to Improve the Quality of Healthcare Services
MANAL H. ALABDALI, KHADIJAH S. MAQBUL, DALAL H. ALABDALI, SHAIMAA A. BAKHSH, MAISA H. AL-SHARIF and WAEL A. ALTHAQAFI
Pages: 51-59
Details (163)
Hospital length of stay (LOS) is considered a quality indicator for assessing patients’ care and hospital performance. Patients with prolonged hospital stays are more likely to consume more hospital resources during their hospitalization, up to 40% of LOS was inappropriate. This Cross-sectional study use data from the health information system (HIS) to reveal that the highest average LOS is 56 days for male patients. 41% of the sample size are older people between 50 and 69 years old, but the highest average LOS is for patients between 14-29 years old. Also, 74% of the sample size was Saudi, but the highest average was 56 days for non-Saudi patients. More than 80% receive free medical services, but the highest average is 58 days for Cash patients. The average LOS is equal for deceased and alive patients. SPSS version 21, used to address the research hypothesis, shows a highly significant relation between admission wards and LOS because the p-value is less than 0.05. The Spearman test revealed that the relationship between gender, nationality, payment type, and urgency is insignificant and has no correlation with LOS, unlike the age group. The highest frequency of diagnosis was for sepsis because the number of admissions was 119, and the maximum LOS was 152 days, followed by leukemia. The study recommends further investigation, especially in diagnosis and assessing if additional diagnoses will increase LOS.
Keywords: Length of Stay, Patient-Related Variables, Management Variables, Hospital Variables and Intensive Care Unit.
4Impact of Government Decisions on the Stock Returns during COVID-19: A Sectorial Level Evidence from PSX
SHAHKAR KHAN, ALAMZEB AAMIR and SHARIF ULLAH JAN
Pages: 60-71
Details (152)
This study's goal is to ascertain how COVID-19 will affect the PSX-100 stock exchange index. This analysis makes use of information on closing prices at the sector level, deaths, recoveries, and 2021 PSX 100 positive cases. The results of the current study are in direct opposition to those of earlier studies, which claimed that COVID-19 had a negative impact on established stock markets. We conclude that the PSX 100 index has verified favorable stock return growth. According to the study's findings. This finding is consistent with a large body of research on pandemics and investor uncertainty and has withstood multiple robustness check exercises. According to the analysis, companies with stronger pre-2020 financial standing, lower pandemic risk, less entrenched leaders, and higher levels of social responsibility activity were less likely to experience a stock price decline due to the pandemic. The results also show that, in terms of performance, firms with more corporate ownership performed better than those with higher ownership of hedge funds. Additional research can be done by including variables connected to COVID-19 at the global level along with others like economic growth, interest rate, and inflation rate. However, this effect is transient, which may be attributable to a prompt regulatory response and Pakistani investors' lowrisk tolerance. it's crucial to remember that a developing nation like Pakistan cannot use a daily database to analyze the effects of COVID-19 on economic activity10. Additionally, since the first COVID-19 case in Pakistan surfaced on February 25, 2020, it is impossible to offer opinions on how COVID-19 would affect the level of uncertainty in Pakistan's stock market and foreign exchange. Second, the impact of COVID-19, which struck Pakistan in February 2020, maybe lessened further because the majority of Pakistan's age groups have already received the necessary vaccinations. It is difficult to remark on how COVID-19 may affect investors' long-term level of uncertainty (as it relates to the stock market and exchange markets). Researchers may later be able to offer some insights into COVID-19's long-term effects if vaccination effectiveness remained poor and the disease maintained infecting patients. This is something we'll leave up to future study.
Keywords: COVID-19 and Stock Market, Pakistan Stock Market and Pandemic, Financial Markets and Pandemics, Lockdown, PSX, Stock Exchange.

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