Year 2021 , Volume  10, Issue 4, Part 1
1Influence of Digitization on Supply Chain Performance in the FMCG Sector of Manufacturing Industry
Pages: 1-10
Details (240)
The study's goal is to look at the impact of digitalisation on the supply chain performance of Pakistani FMCG manufacturers. During its investigation, the report discovered a number of tactics and efforts used by supply chain professionals in FMCG companies to adopt technology in the supply chain. The study emphasises the importance of technology in supply chain operations and compares the effectiveness and responsiveness of current digital supply chains to traditional supply chains that are largely focused on cost efficiency and short-term objectives.
Keywords: Digital Supply Chain, Supply chain Agility, Technology, Supply chain performance, FMCG Manufacturing Industry.
2Perception of Investors through Credit Rating Agencies on Investment beliefs: An Analytical Survey of Suppliers of Funds in Karachi
Pages: 11-18
Details (315)
In this paper, researcher have examined the perception about the credit rating of investors’ of Karachi, Pakistan. Credit rating serve as a valuable input for the investors. So, researcher need to shed some light on the concept of credit ratings. Does credit rating affect investors' trust in financial institutions' performance? For this, researcher have collected data through a questionnaire survey from the investors. Credit rating awareness in Pakistan, exists or not, do they realize the importance of credit rating, does it really help to determine the amount of investment return position, what is the perception of investors with age increase about credit rating. In Pakistan two credit ratings agencies issue credit rating are PACRA and JCR-VIS regulated by SECP. Investor perceptions of financial instrument rating for investment purposes were investigated. Researcher has collected Data, researcher has found in Pakistan investors’ perceptions about credit ratings are positively related they think a good credit rating is important to take the investment decision but, do not strongly rely on credit rating.
Keywords: Investors, Credit Rating, Importance, Investors Perception.
3The Impact of AI-Based Chatbots on Customer Satisfaction
Pages: 19-26
Details (1540)
The study analyzes the impact of AI-based chatbot on customer satisfaction and its acceptance in Pakistan. The quantitative research design was adopted, and data was collected through a questionnaire. The 140 properly filled questionnaires were included in the study. The data was analyzed using SPSS. It was identified that reliability, understandability, and accuracy are the major elements of AI chatbot that can create an impact on customer satisfaction. Whereas, the majority of people consider the inclusion of AI chatbot ahead of its time. Pakistani society is not willing to accept AI chatbot as there are lingual and technological limitations.
Keywords: AI Chatbots, Customer Satisfaction, Technological Advancements, Pakistani Society.
4Do Anger and Anxiety Traits Affect the Predictability and Riskiness in Investment Decisions? The Complementary Role of Demographics and Religiosity
Pages: 27-54
Details (269)
It is a well-established fact that financial decision-making, in particular, investment is tightly coupled to human behavior. Existing research in financial investment domain assumes that investors behave rationally and that all market information is embedded in the investment process. However, human beings are not always fully rational when making investment decisions. Sometimes wrong decisions taken by angry investors lead to grim consequences, since the decisions have been made without proper analysis and rational judgment. This study investigates the relative importance of Trait anger and Trait anxiety in financial decision-making, and how religiosity and demographic factors complement these traits. The effect of these primary and mediating variables has been particularly studied in the context of predictability and riskiness of an investment decision. This research makes an argument that higher anger and anxiety would make the investment decision unpredictable and risk-prone. However, adding the moderating variables, in particular, higher age groups, education, and income, as well as religiosity would help to take risk-averse investment decisions. The empirical validity of research is carried out by conducting a survey based on a close-ended questionnaire to measure Trait anxiety and Trait anger using the Anxiety Inventory and Anger Expression Inventory-2. A total of 320 respondents across Pakistan filled up the questionnaire; the collected data is analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The results indicate that anger and religiosity have a significantly positive relation with predictability of an investment decision. Additionally, religiosity also seems to influence the factors that increase the riskiness. Contrary to it, the education among other demographic variables is linked to reducing the riskiness. The conclusions are of critical importance for investors and financial advisers. While prior research has shown the relevance of personality traits on investment performance, the added dimensions of demographics and religiosity add practicality to the findings.
Keywords: Trait Anger; Trait Anxiety; Gender; Religiosity; Predictability; Investment Choices.
5Psychological Contract Breach and Job Related Outcomes
Pages: 55-69
Details (226)
The purpose of this study is to examine the consequences of relational and transactional psychological contract breach on turnover intention with the mediating variables job satisfaction and affective commitment in the employees working in the banking sector of Pakistan. Questionnaire were distributed to the employee working in the banking sector of Karachi. Total 268 sample size were used in this thesis. SEM has been used with the help of Smart-PLS to check the relationship between the variables. Convergent and discriminant validity have been evaluated. Boot strapping has been used to test the direct and mediating effects. The findings of this study showed that the relational PCB has a significant and positive impact on TI while the PCB has neglible impact on the TI. TBC has a significant and negative impact on both JS and AC. RBC has a significant and negative impact on both job satisfaction and affective commitment. Job satisfaction was found to mediate the association between both relational and transactional psychological contract and turnover intention while affective commitment was found to arbitrate the TBC and turnover intention, but not RBC and turnover intention. The finding provides some practical implication for the organization. During the hiring process itself, organizations should not make any unrealistic promises. The organization Rules, Policies and Procedures should be grounded on equality and fairness. Organization should make sure that the performance reviews are conducted on the regular basis. If organization had fail to make any promise or expectation they made to the employee, then they should communicate clearly and give some explanation why the certain expectation couldn’t meet. The finding provides new intuition into the aspects effecting employee turnover intention. Previous study presenting turnover models mostly used job satisfaction, leadership and organizational commitment, either correlation-ally or independently, but there is less focus on the psychological contract breach impact on turnover intention. This research make a contribution to current studies on psychological contract and will assist for further studies. This study finding will also aid the organization and manager in minimizing turnover intention of the employee.
Keywords: Transactional Psychological Contract, Breach (PCB), Relational Psychological Contract, Breach (RBC), Turnover Intention (TI), Job Satisfaction (JS), Affective Commitment (AC).
6Enhancement of Financial Inclusion & Investors Choice: An Assessment of Alternate Source of Funds through Crowdfunding in Pakistan
Pages: 70-87
Details (220)
Crowdfunding is acclaimed as financial innovation, a FinTech, and one of the fastest-growing industries in the financial sector. In Financial Inclusion context, crowdfunding relates to a market-based financing method where assets are raised from huge numbers of individuals in limited quantities/amounts, bypassing conventional monetary intermediaries, and utilizing on the internet platforms to associate with borrowers, regardless of whether to finance a business, a particular task, or different requirements. It is a type of crowdsourcing. The reception of crowdfunding for subsidizing various kinds of ventures is far-reaching, but in developing countries, its awareness and hence investment volume & pattern is either non-existent or lacks substantiality. This study aims to serve as the initial insights into the crowdfunding intention of investors through exploring motivational factors such as Commitment, Perceived Benefits & Product Innovation and provide valuable understanding of the interaction of multiple factors that play an important role in investment decisions. Hence, Social Exchange Theory (SET) & Consumer Value Proposition (CVP) have been used as theoretical bases in this research. The collated data was analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Findings indicate that Commitment has a significant impact on crowdfunding intention and perceived risk has a negligible impact on crowdfunding intention. The aim of this study is to provide information and references to assist decision-makers in Pakistan in understanding how funds can be gathered to support urgent needs for SMEs and startups through this viable medium which can potentially enhance financial inclusion. Furthermore, this study contributes a fair amount of research for policymakers/project proponents/crowdfunding platforms in attaining cognizance of the motivating factors behind funders’ behavior and investment decision.
Keywords: Crowdfunding, Finclusion, Alternative Finance, Innovation, Fintech, Social Exchange Theory, Consumer Value Proposition, Crowdfunding intentions, Commitment, Perceived Risk, Perceived Benefits, Perceived Trust.